achievement
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Lempriere's Classical Dictionary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Sardinia to Saturnus

Sardinia from Sardus, a son of Hercules, who settled there with a colony which he had brought with him from Libya. Other colonies, under Aristaeus, Norax, and Iolas, also settled there. The Carthaginians were long masters of it, and were dispossessed by the Romans in the Punic wars, B.C. 231. Some call it, with Sicily, one of the granaries of Rome. The air was very unwholesome, though the soil was fertile, in corn, in wine, and oil. Neither wolves nor serpents are found in Sardinia, nor any poisonous herb, except one, which, when eaten, contracts the nerves, and is attended with a paroxysm of laughter, the forerunner of death ; hence risus Sardonicus, Sardous. Cic. Fam. 7, c. 25. --Servius ad Virg. 7, ecl. 41. — Tacit, Ann. 2, c. 85. — Mela, 3, c. 7.—Strab. 2 & 5. ic pro Manil. Ad Q. Frat. 2, ep. 3.—Plin. 3, c. 7. Paus. 10, c. 17.—Varro, de R. R.— Val. Max. 7. c. 6.

Sardica, a town of Thrace, at the north of mount Haemus.

Sardis, or Sardes, now Sart, a town of Asia Minor, the capital of the kingdom of Lydia, situate at the foot of mount Tmolus, on the banks of the Pactolus. It is celebrated for the many sieges it sustained against the Cimmerians, Persians, Medes, Macedonians, Ionians, and Athenians, and for the battle in which, B.C. 262, Antiochus Soter was defeated by Eumenes king of Pergamus. It was destroyed by an earthquake in the reign of Tiberius, who ordered it to be rebuilt. It fell into the hands of Cyrus, B.C. 548, and was burnt by the Athenians, B.C. 504, which became the cause of the invasion of Attica by Darius. Plut. in Alex.—Ovid. Met. 11. v, 137, 152, &c.—Strab. 13.—Herodot. I, c. 7, &c.

Sardones, the people of Roussilon in France, at the foot of the Pyrenees. Plin. 3, c. 4.

Sardus, a son of Hercules, who led a colony to Sardinia and gave it his name.

Sarephta, a town of Phoenicia between Tyre and Sidon, now Sarfand.

Sariaster, a son of Tigranes kingof Armenia, who conspired against his father, &c. Val. Max., 9, c. 11.

Sariphi, mountains at the east of the Caspian

Sarmatae, or Sauromatae, the inhabitants of Sarmatia. Vid. Sarmatia.

Sarmatia, an extensive country at the north of Europe and Asia, divided into European and Asiatic. The European was bounded by the ocean on the north, Germany and the Vistula on the west, the Jazygae on the south, and the Tanais on the east. The Asiatic was bounded by Hyrcania, the Tanais, and the Euxine sea. The former contains the modern kingdoms of Russia, Poland, Lithuania, and Little Tartary; and the latter, Great Tartary, Circassia, and the neighbouring country. The Sarmatians were a savage uncivilized nation, often confounded with the Scythians, naturally warlike, and famous for painting their bodies to appear more terrible in the field of battle. They were well known for their lewdness, and they passed among the Greeks and Latins by the name of barbarians. In the time of the emperors they became very powerful, and disturbed the peace of Rome by their frequent incursions; till at last, increased by the savage hordes of Scythia, under the barbarous names of Huns, Vandals, Goths, Alans, &c., they successfully invaded and ruined the empire in the third and fourth centuries of the Christian era. They generally lived on the mountains without any habitation, except their chariots, whence they have been called Hamaxobii. They lived upon plunder, and fed upon milk mixed with the blood of horses. Strabo 7 etc. - Mela 2, c. 4. - Diod. 2 - Flor. 4. c. 12 - Lucan 1 etc. - Juvenal 2. - Ovid Tristia 3, etc.

Saronicus Sinus, now the gulf of bay of the /Kgean nea. lying at Ins gu ttica, and on the north of the Pelupminesne, and fed upon milk mixed with the Mi Strab. 7, £c.—Mtfa, 9> e, 4.='" c. 12.—Lucan. i, &c. /«». 9,

Sarmatloum mart, A ....... Euxine sea, because on the nypit £Ji//V/. 4, ex Pont. ep. 10, v, jl. Barmentui, a Rcurrlloui peri Horat. i, j«/. 5, v. 56.

Sarnius, a river of A*in, timr

Sarnui, a river of JMcanum, .... Campania, and falling into the TUIPBH Sylv. 2, v. 265.— Vi*'l 'Wn> 7, v, f ji,^—^

Saron, a king of Tni'iM IIP, ttmiiyally fgj hunting. He wan drowned in the §§§, whi had swum for Home miles in pursuit of i it was made a »im god by Neptune, Btttl il ours were paid to him by the Tree customary for nallorn to oflet him they embarked. That ptiil of the itm wfifeff III drowned was called ,\ni'<>ni, Ht tfnui, tin the of Achaia, near the Mlmum ol t 'mini4 built a temple to Diana at Tru^ene, ami festivals to her honour, cullml from Illume! Pans. 2, c. 30.—Mt'la, a, c. j. .S'Mi^i N,

Saronlous, a bay Attica, entrance into it is between the Sunium and that of Scyllwum. Hunts this part of the sea received Itn ttsmi ,.,,... „„ who was drowned there, or front ft smell riviF W discharged itself on the copt, ur (Vtini a littnli. bour of the same name. Th» HHronii! bay Ji 62 miles in circumference, «j rnllei jn Iti I and 25 in its longest pm t, ftn ordillg IM calculation.

SarpSdon, n inn of daughter of Ageimr, lie Crete, after he had in vain n»lf king In |iref«r?iii« t» I and he retired to t aria, wh I'lltttU ilgtliiist tlte Ul£<*t*§, WJifei»= life *8i attiflflit by hh friend mi'l Minijm»iinii nhu'u§ }fg was i Innt kllbd by 1'ntliit Ills, sfl^l lie |ii»{ IMa4fe i Nhiughter of the enemy, und hh lindy, liy yri fuptter, WHS i-onvpywl to l^=^^k jj famous for a temple *m ted |a A HIM! ——Also a promontory of tht lame Him! 19 beyond which Antioehui Wfti APi I«MM| by a treaty of pence whit ll he hiidi mil Romans. Liv. il, c, i*, Mm± promontory of Tnr»f« A Myrla flourished 1J. C. 144,

Sarra, n town of t*hf«ttMi, tlis _ It receives it* name fittm i sifiiil §hi same name which wait fount! in thi Mijj and with whose blood garment! came the epithet of «»»#*«*, la i Tyrian colour*, n» well as MJ the jnh, colonicH of the J'yi hun, p«Hi^uliH|r liy |' tit Him liimsil? in piaks " re lit= hnilt I Imm,, ttiwn r t«i ttiiif SA& 545 SAT 6, v. 662. 1. 13, v. 205.—Virg. G. a, v. 506.—Festus de V. Sig.

SarrastOS, a people of Campania on the Sar-nus, who assisted Turnua against ./KiiciiH. ^rirg. s&n. 7, v. 738.

Sarron, a king of the Ccltw, no famous for his learning, that from him philosophers were called Sarronida. Diod. 6, c. y.

Sara, a town of Spain, near cape Finistcrrc.

Sarslna, an ancient town of Umbria, where the poet Plautus wan horn. The inhabitants are called Sarsinates. Martial. 9, r/. 59.—Plin. 3, c. 14.— Jtal. 8, v. 462.

Sarus, a river of Cappadocia. Liv. 33, c. 41.

Sasanda, a town of Caria. Diod. 14.'

Sason, an island at the entrance of the Adriatic sea, lying between Brimdusium and Aulon on the coast of Greece. It is barren and inhospitable. Strab. 6.—Lncan. 2, y. 627, & 5, v. 650.—Sil. It. 7, v. 480.——A river falling into the Adriatic.

SatarcheB. a people near the I'alun M,-cotis. Mela, 9, c. t.—Ffacc. 6, v, 144.

SataBpOB» a Persian hung on a cro** hy order of Xerxes, for offering violent* to the daughter of Megabyzus. HU fntherV nume wa»% 'i'hettupp^. Herodot. 4.

Satlbarzanfii, a IVi>it(n mnde natiHp of |!m Arians by Alpxainlm; from whom he alieiwunU revolted, Curt, o & 7,

Satlottla and EtatiOUlUi, a town neui Capua. Vit'K. ,'Kn, 7, v, jvi), /,ii>, y, «-. yi, I. i i,

Satis, a town of Macedonia.

Satre9, a people of Thrace. Hfrmfnt. 7, «'. 111.

Satrapfinl, a people of Mcdiu, under TiKianrn. Plut.

Satricum, a town of Italy, taken by Cumillus. Liv. 6, c. 8.

Satropaces, an officer in the army of Darius, &c. Curt. 4, c. 9.

Sattlra, a lake of Latium, forming part of the Pontine lakes. Sil. 8, v. •ga.—Virg. sEn. 7, v. 801.

Satureium, or Satureum, a town of Calabria, near Tarentum, with famous pastures and horses, whence the epithet of satureianus in Horat. x, sat. 6.

SatureillS, one of Domitian's numlcrcrs.

Saturnalia, festivals in honour of Saturn, celebrated the 16th or the 17th, or, according to others, the 18th of December.

They were instituted long before the foundation of Rome, in commemoration of the freedom and equality which prevailed on earth in the golden reign of Saturn. Some, however, suppose that the Saturnalia were first observed at Rome in the reign of Tullus Hostilius, after a victory obtained over the Sabines: while others support that Janus first instituted them in gratitude to Saturn, from whom he had learnt agriculture. Others suppose that they were first celebrated in the year of Rome 257, after a victory obtained over the Latins by the dictator Posthumius. The Saturnalia were originally celebrated only for one day, but afterwards the solemnity continued for three, four, five, and at last for seven days.

The celebration was remarkable for the liberty which universally prevailed.
  • The slaves were permitted to ridicule their masters, and to speak with freedom upon every subject.
  • It was usual for friends to make presents one to another;
  • all animosity ceased,
  • no criminals were executed,
  • schools were shut,
  • war was never declared, but
  • all was mirth, riot, and debauchery.
  • In the sacrifices the priests made their offerings with their heads uncovered, a custom which was never observed at other festivals.
Senec. ep. 18.— Cato de R. R. 57. —Sueton. in Vesp. 19.—Cic. ad Attic. 5, ep. 20.

Saturnia, a name given to Italy, because Saturn had reigned there during the golden age. Virg. G. 2, v. 173.——A name given to Juno, as being the daughter of Saturn, virg. G. a, v. 173. /En. 3, v. 80.——An ancient town of Italy, supposed to be built by Saturn, on the Tarpeian rock. Virg. /En. 8, v. 358.——A colony of Etruria. Liv. 39> c« 55-

Saturnmus P. Sen^pronius, a general of Valerian, proclaimed emperor in Egypt by his troops after he had rendered himself celebrated by his victories over the barbarians. His integrity, his complaisance and affability, had gained him the affection of the people, but his fondness for ancient discipline provoked his soldiers, who wantonly murdered him in the 43rd year of his age, A.D. 262.

——Sextius Julius, a Gaul, intimate with Aurelian. The emperor esteemed him greatly, not only for his virtues, hut for his abilities as a^general, and for tho victories which he hud obtained in different part* of the empire. lie was naluted emperor at Alexandria, and compelled by the clamorous army to accept of the purple, which he rejected with dUdniu and horror. I'lolm*, who wag then em- (»eii>i, until lif!<| hin forceN against him, and besieged tint in Apumett, where he deNiroyed himself when iimihlf? to nmkti head again*! hh powerful adver-Mtny, — - Appiilelui, a titliiino of the people who irtiieil a sedition at Rome, intimidated the senate, and lyniMiii/tHl for thrue yram. Meeting at last with opposition, he sci/ed the capitol, hut being induced by the hopes of a reconciliation to trust himself amidst the people, he was suddenly torn to pieces. His sedition has received the name of Appuleiana in the Roman annals. Flor.——Lu-cius, a seditious tribune, who supported the oppression of Marius. He was at last put to death on account of his tumultuous disposition. Plut, in Mario.—Flor. 3, c. 16.——An officer in the court of Theodosius, murdered for obeying the emperor's orders, &c.——Pompeius, a writer in the reign of Trajan. He was greatly esteemed by Pliny, who speaks of him with great warmth and approbation, as an historian, a poet, and an orator. Pliny always consulted the opinion of Saturnlrws before he published his compositions.——Sentius, a friend of Augustus and Tiberius. He succeeded Agrippa in the government of the provinces of Syria and IMuvuicia.——Vitellius, an officer among the friends of the emperor Otho.

Saturnius, a name given to Jupiter, Pluto, and Neptune, as being the sons of Saturn.

Saturnus, a son of Coclus, or Uranus, by Terra, called also Titea, Thea, or Titheia. He was naturally artful, and by means of his mother, he revenged himself on his father, whose cruelty to his children had provoked the anger of Thea. The mother armed her son with a scythe, which was fabricated with the metals drawn from her bowels, and as Coelus was going to unite himself to Thea, Saturn mutilated him, and for ever prevented him from increasing the number of his children, whom he treated with unkindness, and confined in the infernal regions. After this the sons of Coelus were restored to liberty, and Saturn obtained his father's kingdom by the consent of his brother, provided he did not bring up any male children. Pursuant to this agreement, Saturn always devoured his sons.as soon as born, because, as some observe, he dreaded

Semele to Servilia

From time to time I intend to add pages from this standard, if dated, work of reference. At the moment I offer pages 558 to 561.

rest of the time which he ought to have been in his mother's womb. This child was called Bacchus, or Dionysius.

Semele immediately after death was honoured with immortality under the name of Thyone. Some, however, suppose that she remained in the infernal regions till Bacchus her son was permitted to bring her back. There were in the temple of Diana, at Troezene, two altars raised to the infernal gods, one of which was over an aperture, through which, as Pausanias reports, Bacchus returned from hell with his mother.

Semele was particularly worshipped at Brasiae in Laconia. where, according to a certain tradition, she had been driven by the winds with her son, after Cadmus had exposed her on the sea on account of her incontinent amour with Jupiter.

The mother of Bacchus, though she received divine honours, had no temples; she had a statue in a temple of Ceres, at Thebes, in Boeotia. Pans. 3, c. 24. 1. 9, c. 5.— Hesiod. Theog.—Homer. 1L 14, v. 323.—Orpheus, Hymn.—Eurip. in Bacch.—Apollod. 3, c. 4.— Ovid. Met. 3, v. 254. Fast. 3, v. 715.—Diod. 3 & 4

Semigermani, a name given to the Helvetii, a people of Germany. Liv. 21, c. 38.

Semigruntus, a general of the Cherusci, taken prisoner by Germanicus, &c. Strab. 7.

Semiramis, a celebrated queen of Assyria, daughter of the goddess Derceto by a young Assyrian. She was exposed in a desert, but her life was preserved by doves for one whole year, till Simmas, one of the shepherds of Ninus, found her, and brought her up as his own child.

Semiramis, when grown up, married Menones the governor of Nineveh, and accompanied him to the siege of Bactra, where, by her advice and prudent directions, she hastened the king's operations and took the city. These eminent services, but chiefly her uncommon beauty, endeared her to Ninus. The monarch asked her of her husband, and offered him instead, his daughter Sosana; but Menones, who tenderly loved Semiramis, refused, and when Ninus had added threats to entreaties, he hung himself. No sooner was Menones dead than Semiramis, who was of an aspiring soul, married Ninus, by whom she had a son called Ninyas. Ninus was so fond of Semiramis, that at her request he resigned the crown to her, and commanded her to be proclaimed queen and sole empress of Assyria.

Of this, however, he had cause to repent; Semiramis put him to death, the better to establish herself on the throne, and when she had no enemies to fear at home, she began to repair the capital of her empire, and by her means Babylon became the most superb and magnificent city in the world.

She visited every part of her dominions, and left everywhere immortal monuments of her greatness and benevolence. To render the roads passable and communication easy, she hollowed mountains and filled up valleys; and water was conveyed at a great expense, by large and convenient aqueducts, to barren deserts and unfruitful plains.

She was not less distinguished as a warrior. Many of the neighbouring nations were conquered ; and when Semiramis was once told, as she was dressing her hair, that Babylon had revolted, she left her toilette with precipitation, and though only half dressed, she refused to have the rest of her head adorned before the sedition was quelled and tranquillity re-established.

Semiramis has been accused of licentiousness, and some authors have observed that she regularly called the strongest and stoutest men in her army to her arms, and afterwards put them to death, that they might not be living witnesses of her incontinence. Her passion for her son was also unnatural, and it was this criminal propensity which induced Ninyas to destroy his mother with his own hands.

Some say that Semiramis was changed into a dove after death, and received immortal honours in Assyria. It is supposed that she lived about 1965 years before the Christian era, and that she died in the 62nd year of her age, and the 25th of her reign. Many fabulous reports have been propagated about Semiramis, and some have declared that for some time she disguised herself and passed for her son Ninyas.

Val. Max. 9, c. 3.—Herodot. i, c. 184.— Diod. 2.—Mela, i, c. 3.—Strabo. 3,— Paterc. i, c. 6. — Justin. i, c. i, &c. — Propert. 3, el. 11, v. 21.— Plut. de Fort., &c. —Ovid. Amor. I, el. 5, v. 11. Met. 4, v. 58. — Marcell. 14, c. 6,

Semnones, a people of Italy, on the borders of Umbria.

—— Of Germany, on the Elbe and Oder

Semones, inferior deities of Rome, that were not in the number of the 12 great gods. Among these were Faunus, the Satyrs, Priapus, Vertumnus, Janus, Pan, Silenus, and all such illustrious heroes as had received divine honours after death. This word seems to be the same as semi homines, because they were inferior to the supreme gods and superior to men. Ovid. Fast. 6, v. 213.

Semosanctus, one of the gods of the Romans among the Indigetes, or such as were born and educated in their country.

Sempronia, a Roman matron, mother of the two Gracchi, celebrated for her learning, and her private as well as public virtues.

—— Also a sister of the Gracchi, who is accused of having assisted the triumvirs Carbo, Gracchus and Flaccus to murder her husband Scipio Africanus the younger. The name of Sempronia was common to the female descendants ofthe family of the Sempronii, Gracchi, and Scipios.

Sempronia lex, de magistratibus, by Sempronius Gracchus the tribune. A.U.C. 630, ordained that no person who had bepn legally deprived of a magistracy for misdemeanours should be capable of bearing an office again. This law was afterwards repealed by the author.

—— Another, de civitate, by the same, A.U.C. 630. It ordained that no capital judgment should be passed over a Roman citizen without the concurrence and authority of the senate. There were also some other regulations, included in this law.

—— Another, de comitiis, by the same, A.U.C. 635. It ordained that, in giving their votes, the centuries should bechosen by lot, and not give it according to the order of their classes.

—— Another, de comitiis. by the same, the same year, which granted to the Latin allies of Rome the privilege of giving votes at elections, as if they were Roman citizens.

— Another, de provinciis, by the same, A.U.C. 630. It enacted that the senators should be permitted before the assembly of the consular comitia to determine as they pleased the particular provinces which should be proposed to the consuls, to be divided by lot, and that the tribunes should be deprived of the power of interposing against a decree of the senate.

——Another, called agraria prima, by T. Sempronius Gracchus the tribune. A.U.C. 620. It confirmed the lex agraria Licinia, and enacted that all such as were in possession of more lands than that law allowed, should immediately resign it to be divided among the poor citizens. Three commissioners were appointed to put this laW into execution; and its consequences were so violent, as it was directly made against the nobles and the senators, that it cost the author his life.

—— Another, called agraria altera, by the same. It required that all the ready money which was found in the treasury of Attalus king of Pergamus, who had left the Romans his heirs, should be divided among the poorer citizens of Rome, to supply them with all the various instruments requisite in husbandry, and that the lands of that monarch should be farmed by the Roman censors, and the money drawn from thence should be divided among the people.

—— Another, frumentaria, by C. Sempronius Gracchus. It required that a certain quantity of corn should be distributed among the people, so much to every individual, for which it was required that they should only pay the trifling sum of a semissis, and a triens.

—— Another, de usura, by M. Sempronius the tribune, A.U.C. 560. It ordained that, in lending money to the Latins and the allies of Rome, the Roman laws should be observed as well as among the citizens.

—— Another, de judicibus, by the tribune C. Sempronius, A.U.C. 630. It required that the right of judging, which had been assigned to the Senatorian order by Romulus, should be transferred from them to the Roman knights.

—— Another, militaris, by the same A.U.C. 630. It enacted that the soldiers should be clothed at the public expense, without any diminution of their usual pay. It also ordered that no person should be obliged to serve In the army before the age of 17.

Sempronius A. Atratinus, a senator who opposed the Agrarian law, which was proposed by the consul Cassius, soon after the election of the tribunes.

—— L. Atratinus, a consul A.U.C. 310. He was one of the first censors with his colleague in the consulship, Papirius.

—— Caius, a consul summoned before an assembly of the people because he had fought with ill success against the Volsci.

—— Blaesus, a consul who obtained a triumph for some victories gained in Sicily.

—— Sophus, a consul against the Aequi. He also fought against the Picentes, and during the engagement there was a dreadful earthquake. The soldiers were terrified, but Sophus encouraged them, and observed that the earth trembled only for fear of changing its old masters.

—— A man who proposed a law that no person should dedicate a temple or altar, without the previous approbation of the magistrates, A.U.C. 449. He repudiated his wife because she had gone to see a spectacle without his permission or knowledge.

—— Rufus, a senator, banished from the senate, because he had killed a crane to serve him as food.

—— Tuditanus, a man sent against Sardinia by the Romans.

—— A legionary tribune, who led away from Cannae the remaining part ofthe soldiers who had not been killed by the Carthaginians. He was afterwards consul, and fought in the field against Annibal with great success. He was killed in Spain.

—— Tiberius Longus, a Roman consul defeated by the Carthaginians in an engagement which he had begun against the approbation of his colleague C. Scipio. He afterwards obtained victories over Hanno and the Gauls.

—— Tiberius Gracchus, a consul who defeated the Carthaginians and the Campanians. He was afterwards betrayed by Fulvius, a Lucanian, into the hands of the Carthaginians, and was killed, after he had made a long and bloody resistance against the enemy. Annibal showed great honour to his remains ; a funeral pile was raised at the head of the camp, and the enemy's cavalry walked round it in solemn procession.

—— Gracchus, a man who had debauched Julia. Vid. Gracchus.

—— A eunuch, made governor of Rome by Caracalla.

——Densus, a centurion of a pretorian cohort who defended the person of Galba against his assassins. He was killed in the attempt.

——The father of the Gracchi. Vid. Gracchus.

——A censor, who was also sent as ambassador to the court of Egypt.

——A tribune of the people, &c. Tacit. — Flor. — Livy.- Plut. Caes.— Appian.

——An emperor. Vid. Saturninus.

Semurium, a place near Rome, where Apollo had a temple. Cic. Phil. 6, 6.

Sena, or Senogallia, a town of Umbria in Italy, on the Adriatic, built by the Senones, after they had made an irruption into Italy, A.U.C. 396; and on that account called Gallica. There was also a small river in the neighbourhood which bore the name of Sena. It was near it that Asdrubal was defeated by Cl. Nero. C. Nep. in C atone.— Sil 8, v. 454.— Liv. 27, c. 46.— Cic. Brut. 18.

Senatus, the chief council of the state among the Romans.

The members of this body, called senatores on account of their age, and patres on account of their authority, were of the greatest consequence in the republic.

The senate was first instituted by Romulus to govern the city, and to preside over the affairs of the state during his absence. This was continued by his successors; but Tarquin II disdained to consult them, and by having his own council chosen from his favourites, and from men who were totally devoted to his interest, he diminished the authority and the consequence of the senators, and slighted the concurrence of the people.

The senators whom Romulus created were 100, to whom he afterwards added the same number when the Sabines had migrated to Rome. Tarquin the ancient made the senate consist of 300, and this number remained fixed for a long time. After the expulsion of the last Tarquin, whose tyranny had thinned the patricians as well as the plebeians, 164 new senators were chosen to complete the 300; and as they were called conscripts, the senate ever afterwards consisted of members who were denominated patres and conscripti. The number continued to fluctuate during the times of the republic, but gradually increased to 700, and afterwards to 900 under Julius Caesar, who filled the senate with men of every rank and order. Under Augustus, the senators amounted to 1000, but this number was reduced to 300, which being the cause of complaints, induced the emperor to limit the number to 600.

The place of a senator was always bestowed upon merit; the monarchs had the privilege of choosing the members, and after the expulsion of the Tarquins, it was one of the rights of the consuls, till the election of the censors, who from their office seemed most capable of making choice of men whose character was irreproachable, whose morals were pure, and relations honourable. Sometimes the assembly of the people elected senators, but it was only upon some extraordinary occasions; there was also a dictator chosen to fill up the number of the senate after the battle of Cannae.

Only particular families were admitted into the senate ; and when the plebeians were permitted to share the honours ofthe state, it was then required that they should be born of free citizens. It was also required that the candidates should be knights before their admission into the senate. They were to be above the age of 25, and to have previously passed through the inferior offices of questor, tribune of the people, edile, pretor, and consul. Some, however, suppose that the senators whom Romulus chose were all old men ; yet his successors neglected this, and often men who were below the age of 25 were admitted by courtesy into the senate. The dignity of a senator could not be supported without the possession of 80,000 sesterces, or about 7000 l. English money; and therefore such as squandered away their money, and whose fortune was reduced below this sum, were generally struck out of the list of senators. This regulation was not made in the first ages of the republic, when the Romans boasted of their poverty.

The senators were not permitted to be of any trade or profession. They were distinguished from the rest of the people by their dress; they wore the laticlave, half boots of a black colour, with a crescent or silver buckle in the form of a C ; but this last honour was confined only to the descendants of those 100 senators who had been elected by Romulus, as the letter C seems to imply. They had the sole right of feasting publicly in the capitol in ceremonial habits ; they sat in curule chairs, and at the representation of plays and public spectacles, they were honoured with particular seats. Whenever they travelled abroad, even on their own business, they were maintained at the public expense, and always found provisions for themselves and their attendants ready prepared on the road; a privilege that was generally termed free legation. On public festivals they wore the praetexta, or long white robe, with purple borders.

The right of convoking the senate belonged only to the monarchs; and after the expulsion of the Tarquins, to the consuls, the dictator, master of the horse, governor of Rome, and tribunes of the people; but no magistrate could exercise this privilege except in the absence of a superior officer, the tribunes excepted.

The time of meeting was generally three times a month, on the calends, nones, and ides. Under Augustus they were not assembled on the nones. It was requisite that the place where they assembled should have been previously consecrated by the augur. This was generally in the temple of Concord, of Jupiter Capitolinus, Apollo, Castor and Pollux, &c., or in the Curiae called Hostilia, Julia, Pompeia, &c. When audience was given to foreign ambassadors, the senators assembled without the walls of the city, either in the temples of Bellona or of Apollo; and the same ceremony as to their meeting was also observed when they transacted business with their generals, as the ambassadors of foreign nations, and the commanders of armies, while in commission, were not permitted to appear within the walls of the city.

To render their decrees valid and authentic, a certain number of members was requisite, and such as were absent without some proper cause, were always fined. In the reign of Augustus, 400 senators were requisite to make a senate. Nothing was transacted before sunrise, or after sunset.

In their office the senators were the guardians of religion; they disposed of the provinces as they pleased, they prorogued the assemblies of the people, they appointed thanksgivings, nominated their ambassadors, distributed the public money, and, in short, had the management of everything political or civil in the republic, except the Creating of the magistrates, the enacting of laws, and the declarations of war or peace, which were confined to the assemblies of the people.

Rank was always regarded in their meetings ; the chief magistrates of the state, such as the consuls, the pretors, and censors, sat first; after these the inferior magistrates, such as the ediles and questors, and last of all, those that then exercised no office in the state. Their opinions were originally collected, each according to his age; but when the office of censor was instituted, the opinion of the princeps senatus, or the person whose name stood first on the censor's list, was first consulted, and afterwards those who were of consular dignity, each in their respective order. In the age of Cicero the consuls elect were first consulted ; and in the age of Caesar, he was permitted to speak first till the end of the year, on whom the consul had originally conferred that honour. Under the emperors the same rules were observed, but the consuls were generally consulted before all others.

When any public matter was introduced into the senate, which was always called referre ad senatum, any senator whose opinion was asked, was permitted to speak upon it as long as he pleased ; and on that account it was often usual for the senators to protract their speeches till it was too late to determine.

When the question was put, they passed to the side of that speaker whose opinion they approved, and a majority of votes was easily collected, without the trouble of counting the numbers. This mode of proceeding was called pedibus in alicuius sententiam ire; and therefore, on that account, the senators who had not the privilege of speaking, but only the right of giving a silent vote, such as bore some curule honours, and on that account were permitted to sit in the senate, but not to deliberate, were denominated pedarii senatores. After the majority had been known, the matter was determined, and a senatus consultum was immediately written by the clerks of the house, at the feet of the chief magistrates, and it was signed by all the principal members of the house. When there was not a sufficient number of members to make a senate, the decision was called senatus autoritas; but it was of no consequence if it did not afterwards pass into a senatus consultum.

The tribunes of the people, by the word veto, could stop the debates, and the decrees of the assembled senate, as also any one who was of equal authority with him who had proposed the matter.

The senatus consulta were left in the custody of the consuls, who could suppress or preserve them ; but about the year of Rome 304, they were always deposited in the temple of Ceres, and afterwards in the treasury, by the ediles of the people.

The degradation of the senators was made by the censor, by omitting their names when he called over the list of the senate. This was called praeterire. A senator could be again introduced into the senate if he could repair his character or fortune, which had been the causes why the censor had lawfully called him unqualified, and had challenged his opposition.

The meeting of the senate was often sudden, except the particular times already mentioned, upon any emergency.

After the death of J. Caesar, they were not permitted to meet on the ides of March, which were called parricidium because on that day the dictator had been assassinated.

The sons of senators, after they had put on the toga virilis, were permitted to come into the senate, but this was afterwards limited. Vid. Papirius.

The rank and authority of the senator, which were so conspicuous in the first ages of the republic, and which caused the minister of Pyrrhus to declare that the Roman senate was a very assembly of kings, dwindled into nothing the emperors. Men of the lowest character were admitted into the senate; the emperors took pleasure in robbing this illustrious body of their privileges and authority, and the senators themselves, by their manners and servility, contributed as much as the tyranny of the sovereign to diminish their own consequence ; and by applauding the follies of 559 a Nero, and the cruelties of a Domitian, they convinced the world that they no longer possessed sufficient prudence or authority to be consulted on matters of weight and importance. In the election of successors to the imperial purple after Augustus, the approbation of the senate was consulted, but it was only a matter of courtesy, and the concurrence of a body of men was little regarded who were without power, and under the control of a mercenary army. The title of Clarissimus was given to the senators under the emperors, and, indeed, this was the only distinction which they had in compensation for the loss of their independence. The senate was abolished by Justinian, 13 centuries after its first institution by Romulus.

Seneca M. Annaeus, a native of Corduba in Spain, who married Helvia, a woman of Spain, by whom he had three sons, Seneca the philosopher, Annaeus Novatus, and Annaeus Mela, the father of the poet Lucan. Seneca made himself known by some declamations, of which he made a collection from the most celebrated orators of the age ; and from that circumstance, and for distinction, he obtained the appellation of declamator. He left Corduba, and went to Rome, where he became a Roman knight.

His son L. Annaeus Seneca, who was born about six years before Christ, was early distinguished by his extraordinary talents, He was taught eloquence by his father, and received lessons in philosophy from the best and most celebrated stoics of the age. As one of the followers of the Pythagorean doctrines, Seneca observed the most reserved abstinence, and in his meals never ate the flesh of animals ; but this he abandoned at the representation of his father, when Tiberius " threatened to punish some Jews and Egyptians, who abstained from certain meats.

In the character of a pleader, Seneca appeared with great advantage, but the fear of Caligula, who aspired to the name of an eloquent speaker, and who consequently was jealous of his fame, deterred him from pursuing his favourite study, and he sought a safer employment in canvassing for the honours and offices of the state.

He was made questor, but the aspersions which were thrown upon him on account of a shameful amour with Julia Livilla, removed him from Rome, and the emperor banished him for some time into Corsica. During his banishment, the philosopher wrote some spirited epistles to his mother, remarkable for elegance of language and for sublimity; but he soon forgot his philosophy and disgraced himself by his flatteries to the emperor, and in .wishing to be recalled, even at the expense of his innocence and character.

The disgrace of Messalina at Rome, and the marriage of Agrippina with Claudius, proved favourable to Seneca; and after he had remained five years in Corsica, he was recalled by the empress to take care of the education of her son Nero, who was destined to succeed to the empire. In the honourable duty of preceptor, Seneca gained applause ; and as long as Nero followed his advice, Rome enjoyed tranquillity, and believed herself safe and happy under the administration of the son of Agrippina.

Some, however, are clamorous against the philosopher, and observe that Seneca initiated his pupil in those unnatural vices and abominable indulgences which disgraced him as a monarch and as a man. This may be the language of malevolence, or the insinuation of jealousy. In the corrupted age of Nero, the preceptor had to withstand the clamours of many wicked and profligate ministers ; and if he had been the favourite of the emperor, and shared his pleasures, his debauchery and extravagance, Nero would not perhaps have been so anxious of destroying a man whose example, from vicious inclinations, he could not follow, and whose salutary precepts his licentious associates forbade him to obey.

Seneca was too well acquainted with the natural disposition of Nero to think himself secure ; he had been accused of having amassed the most ample riches, and of having built sumptuous houses, and adorned beautiful gardens, during the four years in which he had attended Nero as a preceptor, and therefore he desired his imperial pupil to accept of the riches, and the possessions which his attendance on his person had procured, and to permit him to retire to solitude and study. Nero refused with artful duplicity, and Seneca, to avoid further suspicions, kept himself at home for some time as if labouring under a disease.

In the conspiracy of Piso, which happened some time after, and in which some of the most noble of the Roman senators were concerned, Seneca's name was mentioned by Natalis, and Nero, who was glad of an opportunity of sacrificing him to his secret jealousy, ordered him to destroy himself. Seneca very probably was not accessary to the conspiracy, and the only thing which could be produced against him as a crimination, was trivial and unsatisfactory, Piso, as Natalis declared, had complained that he never saw Seneca, and the philosopher had observed in answer, that it was not proper or conducive to their common interest to see one another often. He further pleaded indisposition, and said that his own life depended upon the safety of Piso's person.

Seneca was at table with his wife Paulina and two of his friends, when the messenger from Nero arrived. He heard the words which commanded him to destroy himself, with philosophical firmness, and even with joy; and observed, that such a mandate might have long been expected from a man who had murdered his own mother, and assassinated all his friends. He wished to dispose of his possessions as he pleased, but this was refused ; and when he heard this, he turned to his friends who were weeping at his melancholy fate, and told them, that since he could not leave them what he believed his own, he would leave them at least his own life for an example, an innocent conduct which they might imitate, and by which they might acquire immortal fame. Against their tears and wailings he exclaimed with firmness, and asked them whether they had not learnt better to withstand the attacks of fortune, and the violence of tyranny? As for his wife, he attempted to calm her emotions, and when she seemed resolved to die with him, he said he was glad to find his example followed with so much constancy.

Their veins were opened at the same moment, but the life of Paulina was preserved, and Nero, who was partial to her ordered the blood to be stopped; and from that moment, according to some authors, the philosopher's wife seemed to rejoice that she could still enjoy the comforts of life. Seneca's veins bled but slowly, and it has been observed, that the sensible and animated conversation of his dying moments was collected by his friends, and that it has been preserved among his works. To hasten his death he drank a dose of poison, but it had no effect, and therefore he ordered himself to be carried into a hot bath, to accelerate the operation of the draught, and to make the blood flow more freely. This was attended with no better success; and as the soldiers were clamorous, he was carried into a stove, and suffocated by the steam, on the 12th of April, in the 65th year of the Christian era, in his 53rd year.

His body was burnt- without pomp or funeral ceremony, according to his will, which he had made when he enjoyed the most unbounded favours of Nero.

The compositions of Seneca are numerous, and chiefly on moral subjects. He is so much admired for his refined sentiments and virtuous precepts, for his morality, his constancy, and his innocence of manners, that St. Jerome has not hesitated to rank him among Christian writers.

His style is nervous, it abounds with ornament, and seems well suited to the taste of the age in which he lived. The desire of recommending himself and his writings to the world, obliged him too often to depreciate the merit of the ancients, and to sink into obscurity.

His treatises are de ira, de consolatione, de Providentid, de tranquillitate animi, de clementia, de sapientis constantia, de otio sapientis, de brevitate vitae. de beneficiis, de vita beata, besides his naturales quaestiones, ludus in Claudium, moral letters, &c.

There are also some tragedies ascribed to Seneca. Quintilian supposes that the Medea is his composition, and according to others, the Troas and the Hippolytus were also written by him, and the Agamemnon, Hercules Furens, Thyestes & Hercules in Oeta by his father, Seneca the declaimer.

The best editions of Seneca are those of Antwerp, fol. 1615, and of Gronovius, 3 vols. Amst. 1672; and those of his tragedies, are that of Schroder's, 4to, Delph. 1728, and the 8vo of Gronovius, L. Bat. 1682.

Tacit. Ann. 12, &c.—Dio.—Sueton. in Ner., &c.—Quintil.

Claudius Senecio, one of Nero's favourites, and the associate of his pleasures and debauchery.

——Tullius, a man who conspired against Nero, and was put to death though he turned informer against the rest of the conspirators.

——A man put to death by Domitian, for writing an account of the life of Helvidius, one of the emperor's enemies.

—— One of Constantine's enemies.

——A man who from a restless and aspiring disposition acquired the surname of Grandio. Seneca, Suas. i.

Senia, a town of Liburnia, now Segna. Plin. 3, c. 21.

Senna, or Sena, a river of Umbria. Vid. Sena. Lucan. 2, v. 4.07.

Senones, an uncivilized nation of Gallia Transalpina, who left their native possessions, and under the conduct of Brennus, invaded Italy and pillaged Rome. They afterwards united with the Umbri, Latins, and Etrurians to make war against the Romans, till they were totally destroyed by Dolabella. The chief of their towns in that part of Italy where they settled near Umbria, and which from them was called Senogallia, were Fanum Fortunae, Sena, Pisaurum, and Armininum. Vid. Cimbri. Lucan. i, v. 254.—Sil. 8, v. 454.— Liv. 5, c. 35, &c.—Flor

.——A people of Germany near the Suevi.

Sentia lex, de senatu, by C. Sentius the consul, A.U.C. 734, enacted the choosing of proper persons to fill up the number of senators.

Sentinum, a town of Umbria. Liv. 10, c. 27 & 30.

Sentius Cn., a governor of Syria, under the emperors.

——A governor of Macedonia.

——Septimius, one of the soldiers of Pompey, who assisted the Egyptians in murdering him.

—— A Roman emperor. Vid. Severus.

——A writer in the reign of the emperor Alexander, of whose life he wrote an account in Latin, or, according to others, in Greek.

Sepias, a cape of Magnesia in Thessaly, at the north of Euboea, now St. George.

Seplasia, a place of Capua, where ointments were sold. Cic. Pis. 7 & 11.

Septem aquae, a portion of the lake near Reate. Cic. 4, Att. 15.

——Fratres, a mountain of Mauritania, now Gebel-Mousa. Strab. 17

.—— Maria, the entrance of the seven mouths of the Po.

Septempeda, a town of Picenum.

Septerion, a festival observed once in nine years at Delphi, in honour of Apollo. It .was a representation of the pursuit of Python by Apollo, and of the victory obtained by the god.

Tit. Septimius, a Roman knight distinguished by his poetical compositions both lyric and tragic. He was intimate with Augustus as well as Horace, who has addressed the sixth of his second lib. of Odes to him.

——A centurion put to death, &c. Tacit. A. i, c. 32.

——A native of Africa, who distinguished himself at Rome as a poet. He wrote, among other things, a hymn in praise of Janus. Only 11 of his verses are preserved. M. Terent. - Crinitus in Vita.

L. Septimuleius, a friend of C. Gracchus. He suffered himself to be bribed by Opimius, and had the meanness to carry his friend's head fixed to a pole through the streets of Rome.

Sepyra, a town of Cilicia, taken by Cicero when he presided over that province. Cic. ad Div, 15. c. 4.

Sequana, a river of Gaul, which separates the territories of the Belgae and the Celtae, and is now called la Seine. Strab. 4.—Mela, 3, c. 2.—Lucan i, v, 425.

Sequani, a people of Gaul near the territories of the AEdui, between the Soane and mount Jura. famous for their wars against Rome, &c. Vid. AEdui. The country which they inhabited is now called Franche Compte, or Upper Burgundy. Caes. Bell. G.

Sequinius, a native of Alba, who married one of his daughters to Curiatius of Alba, and the other to Horatius, a citizen of Rome. The two daughters were brought to bed on the same day, each of three male children.

Serapio, a surname given to one of the Scipios, because he resembled a swineherd of that name.

——A Greek poet who flourished in the age of Trajan. He was intimate with Plutarch.

——An Egyptian put to death by Achillas, when he came at the head of an embassy from Ptolemy, who was a prisoner in the hands of J. Caesar.

——A painter, Plin. 35, c. 10.

Serapis, one of the Egyptian deities, supposed to be the same as Osiris. He had a magnificent temple at Memphis, another very rich at Alexandria, and a third at Canopus. The worship of Serapis was introduced at Rome, by the emperor Antoninus Pius, A.D. 146, and the mysteries celebrated on the 6th of May, but with so much licentiousness that the senate were soon after obliged to abolish them.

Herodotus, who speaks in a very circumstantial manner of the deities, and of the religion of the Egyptians, makes no mention of the god Serapis. Apollodorus says it is the same as the bull Apis. Paus. i, c. 18. L 2, c. 34. Tacit. Hist. 4, c. 83.— Strab. 17.— Martial 9, ep. 30.

Serbonis, a lake between Egypt and Palestine.

Serena, a daughter of Theodosius, who married Stilicho. She was put to death, &c. Claudian

Serenianus, a favourite of Gallus the brother of Julian. He was put to death.

Serenus Samonicus, a physician in the age of the emperor Severus and Caracalla. There remains a poem of his composition on medicine, the last edition of which is that of 1706, in 8vo, Amst.

—— Vibius, a governor of Spain, accused of cruelty in the government of his province, and put to death by order of Tiberius.

Seres, a nation of Asia, according to Ptolemy, between the Ganges and the eastern ocean in the modern Thibet. They were naturally of a meek disposition. Silk, of which the fabrication was unknown to the ancients, who imagined that the materials were collected from the leaves of trees, was brought to Rome from their country, and on that account it received the name of Sericum, and thence a garment or dress of silk is called serica vestis. Heliogobalus the Roman emperor was the first who wore a silk dress, which at that time was sold for its weight in gold. It afterwards became very cheap, and consequently was the common dress among the Romans. Some suppose that the Seres are the same as the Chinese. Ptol. 6, c. 16. — Horat. i, od. 20,, v. 9.— Lucan. i, v. 19. I. 19, v. 142 & 292. — Ovid. Am. i, 14, v. 6. — Virg. G.2, V. 121.

Sergestus, a sailor in the fleet of Aeneas, from whom the family of the Sergii at Rome were descended. Virg. Aen. 5, v. 121.

Sergia, a Roman matron, She conspired with others to poison their husbands. The plot was uncovered, and Sergia, with some of her accomplices, drank poison and died.

Sergius, one of the names of Catiline.

—— A military tribune at the siege of Veii. The family of the Sergii was patrician, and branched out into the several families of the Fidenates, Sili, Catilinae, Nattae, Ocellae, and Planci.

Sergius and Sergiolus, a deformed youth, greatly admired by the Roman ladies in Juvenal's age. Juv. 6, v. 105 et seq.

Seriphus, an island in the .Aegean sea, about 36 miles in circumference, according to Pliny only 12, very barren, and uncultivated. The Romans generally sent their criminals there in banishment, and it was there that Cassius Severus the orator was exiled, and there he died. According to Aelian, the frogs of this island never croaked, but when they were removed from the island to another place, they were more noisy and clamorous than others ; hence the proverb of seriphia rana applied to a man who neither speaks nor sings. This, however, is found to be a mistake by modern travellers. It was on the coast of Seriphos that the chest was discovered in which Acrisius had exposed his daughter Danae and her son Perseus. Strab. 10. — Aelian. Anim. 3, c. 37. — Mela, 2, c. 7. — Apollod. i, c. 9. — Tacit. Ann. 4, c. 21. — Ovid. Met. 5, v, 242. I. 7, v. 65.

Sermyla, a town of Macedonia. Herodot. 7, c. 122.

Seron, a general of Antiochus Epiphanes.

Serranus, a surname given to Cincinnatus, because he was found sowing his fields when told that he had been elected dictator. Some, however, suppose that Serranus was a different person from Cincinnatus. Plin. 18, c. 3. — Liv. 3, c. 26. — Virg. Aen. 6, v. 844.

—— One of the auxiliaries of Turnus, killed in the night by Nisus. Virg. Aen. 9, v. 335.

—— A poet of some merit in Domitian's reign. Juv. 7, v. 80.

Serrheum, a fortified place of Thrace. Liv. 31, c. 16.

Quintus Sertorius, a Roman general, son of Quintus and Rhea, born at Nursia.

His first campaign was under the great Marius, against the Teutones and Cimbri. He visited the enemy's camp as a spy, and had the misfortune to lose one eye in the first battle he fought. When Marius and Cinna entered Rome and slaughtered all their enemies, Sertorius accompanied them, but he expressed his sorrow and concern at the melancholy death of so many of his countrymen.

He afterwards fled for safety into Spain, when Sylla had proscribed him, and in this distant province he behaved himself with so much address and valour that he was looked upon as the prince of the country. The Lusitanians universally revered and loved him, and the Roman general did not show himself less attentive to their interest, by establishing public schools, and educating the children of the country in the polite arts, and the literature of Greece and Rome. He had established a senate, over which he presided with consular authority, and the Romans, who followed his standard, paid equal reverence to his person. They were experimentally convinced of his valour and magnamimity as a general, and the artful manner in which he imposed upon the credulity of his adherents in the garb of religion, did not diminish his reputation.

He pretended to hold commerce with heaven by means of a white hind which he had tamed with great success, and which followed him everywhere, even in the field of battle.

The success of Sertorius in Spain, and his popularity among the natives, alarmed the Romans. They sent some troops to oppose him, hut with little success. Four armies were found insufficient to crush or even hurt Sertorius ; and Pompey and Metellus, who never engaged an enemy without obtaining the victory, were driven with dishonour from the field.

But the favourite of the Lusitanians was exposed to the dangers which usually attend greatness. Perpenna, one of his officers who was jealous of his fame and tired of a superior, conspired against him. At a banquet the conspirators began to open their intentions by speaking with freedom and licentiousness in the presence of Sertorius, whose age and character had hitherto claimed deference from others. Perpenna overturned a glass of wine, as a signal for the rest of the conspirators, and immediately Antonius, one of his officers, stabbed Sertorius, and the example was followed by all the rest, 73 years before Christ.

Sertorius has been commended for his love of justice and moderation. The flattering description which he heard of the Fortunate Islands when he passed into the west of Africa, almost tempted him to bid adieu to the world, and perhaps he would have retired from the noise of war, and the clamours of envy, to end his days in the bosom of a peaceful and solitary island, had not the stronger calls of ambition and the love of fame prevailed over the intruding reflections of a moment. It has been observed that in his latter days Sertorious became indolent, and fond of luxury and wanton cruelty; yet we must confess that in affability, clemency, complaisance, generosity, and military valour, he not only surpassed his contemporaries, but the rest of the Romans. Plut. in Vita. —Paterc, 2, c. 30, &c.—Flor. 3, c. 21, &c.—Appian. de Civ.—Val. Max. i, c. 2. 1. 7, c. 3.—Eutrop.— Aul. Cell. 15, c. 22.

Servaeus, a man accused by Tiberius of being privy to the conspiracy of Sejanus. Tacit. A. 6, c. 7.

Servianus, a consul in the reign of Adrian. He was a great favourite of the emperor Trajan.

Servilia, a sister of Cato of Utica, greatly enamoured of J. Caesar, though her brother was

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