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Classics Teaching Resources


Lempriere's Classical Dictionary

From time to time I intend to add pages from this standard, if dated, work of reference.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Anicetus to Annibal (i.e. Hannibal)

Archibiades to Ardea

Atticus to Aurora

From time to time I intend to add pages from this standard, if dated, work of reference. Here I offer pages 48 to 49.

Anicetus A son of Hercules by Hebe the goddess of youth - Apollodorus 2;

A freedman who directed the education of Nero, and became the instrument of his crimes. Suet, in Ner.

Anicia, a family at Rome, which, in the flourishing times of the republic, produced many brave and illustrious citizens.——-
A relation of Atticus. C. Nepos.

Anicium, a town of Gaul. Caesar Bell. Gall. 7.

Anicius Gallus triumphed over the Illyrians and their king Gentius, and was propretor of Rome, A.U.C. 585.——
A consul with Corn. Cethegus, A.U.C. 504 .--
Probus, a Roman consul in the fourth century, famous for his humanity.

Anigrus, a river of Thessaly, where the centaurs washed the wounds which they had received from Hercules, and made the waters unwholesome. Ovid. Met. 15, y. 381. The nymphs of this river are called Anigriades. Paus. 5, c.6.

Anio and Anien, now Taverone, a river of Italy, flowing through the country of Tibur, and falling into the river Tiber, about five miles at the north of Rome. It receives its name, as some suppose, from Anius, a king of Etruria, who drowned himself there when he could not recover his daughter, who had been carried away. Statius 1. Sylv. 3, v. 20. —Virgil. Aen. 7, v. 683. — Strabo. 5 .—Horat. i, od. 7, v. 13. —Plut. de Fort. Rom.

Anitorgis, a city of Spain, near which a battle was fought between Asdrubal and the Scipios. Liv. 25, c. 33.

Anius the son of Apollo and Rhea, was king of Delos and father of Andrus. He had by Dorippe three daughters, Oeno, Spermo, and Elais, to whom Bacchus had given the power of changing whatever they pleased into wine, corn, and oil. When Agamemnon went to the Trojan war, he wished to carry them with him to supply his army with provisions; but they complained to Bacchus, who changed them into doves. Ovid. Met. 13, v. 642. —Dionys. Hal. I. —Diod. 5. —Virg. Aen. 3, v. 80.

Anna , a goddess, in whose honour the Romans instituted festivals. She was, according to some, Anna the daughter of Belus and sister of Dido, who after her sister's death fled from Carthage, which Jarbas had besieged, and came to Italy, where AEneas met her, as he walked on the banks of the Tiber, and gave her an honourable reception, for the kindnesses she had shown him when he was at Carthage. Lavinia the wife of AEneas was jealous of the tender treatment which was shown to Anna, and meditated her ruin. Anna was apprised of this by her sister in a dream, and she fled to the river Numicus, of which she became a deity, and ordered the inhabitants of the country to call her Anna Perenna, because she would remain for ever under the water. Her festivals were performed with many rejoicings, and the females often, in the midst of their cheerfulness, forgot their natural decency. They were introduced into Rome, and celebrated the 15th of March. The Romans generally sacrificed to her, to obtain a long and happy life: and thence the words Annare et Perennare. Some have supposed Anna to be the moon, quia mensibus impleat annum ; others call her Themis, or lo, the daughter of Inachus, and sometimes Maia. Another more received opinion maintains that Anna was an old industrious woman of Bovillae, who, when the Roman populace had fled from the city to mount Sacer, brought them cakes every day ; for which kind treatment the Romans, when peace was reestablished, decreed immortal honours to her whom they called Perenna, ab perennitate cultus, and who, as they supposed, was become one of their deities. Ovid. Fast. 3, v. 653, &c.— Sil. 8, v. 79.— Virgil AEn. 4, v. 9, 20, 421, & 500.

Anna Commena, a princess of Constantinople, known to the world for the Greek history which she wrote of her father Alexius, emperor of the east. The character of this history is not very high for authenticity or beauty of composition : the historian is lost in the daughter; and instead of simplicity of style and narrative, as Gibbon says, an elaborate affectation of rhetoric and science betrays in every page the vanity of a female author. The best edition of Anna Commena is that of Paris, folio, 1651.

Annaeus, a Roman family, which was subdivided into the Lucani, Senecae, Flori, &c.

Annales, a chronological history which gives an account of all the important events of every year in a state, without entering into the causes which produced them. The annals of Tacitus may be considered in this light. In the first ages of Rome, the writing of the annals was one of the duties and privileges of the high priest; whence they have been called Annales Maximi, from the priest Pontifex Maximus, who consecrated them, and gave them as truly genuine and authentic.

Annalis lex settled the age at which, among the Romans, a citizen could be admitted to exercise the offices of the state. This law originated in Athens, and was introduced in Rome. No man could be a knight before 18 years of age, nor be invested with the consular power before he had arrived to his 25th year.

Annianus, a poet in the age of Trajan.


Hannibal


Annibal, a celebrated Carthaginian general, son of Amilcar.

He was educated in his father's camp, and inured from his early years to the labours of the field. He passed into Spain when nine years old, and, at the request of his father, took a solemn oath that he never would be at peace with the Romans.

After his father's death, he was appointed over the cavalry in Spain ; and some time after, upon the death of Asdrubal, he was invested with the command of all the armies of Carthage, though not yet in the 25th year of his age. In three years of continual success, he subdued all the nations of Spain which opposed the Carthaginian power, and took Saguntum after a siege of eight months. This city was in alliance with the Romans, and its fall was the cause of the second Punic war, which Annibal prepared to support with all the courage and prudence of a consummate general.

He levied three large armies, one of which he sent to Africa ; he left another in Spain, and marched at the head of the third towards Italy. This army some have calculated at 20,000 foot and 6000 horse; others say that it consisted of 100,000 foot and 20,000 horse. Liv. 21, c. 38.

He came to the Alps, which were deemed almost inaccessible, and had never been passed over before him but by Hercules, and after much trouble he gained the top in nine days. He conquered the uncivilized inhabitants that opposed his passage, and, after the amazing loss of 30,000 men, made his way so easy, by softening the rocks with fire and vinegar, that even his armed elephants descended the mountains without danger or difficulty, where a man, disencumbered of his arms, could not walk before in safety.

He was opposed by the Romans an soon as he entered Italy ; and after he had defeated P. Corn. Scipio and Sempronius, near the Rhone, the Po, and the Trebia, he crossed the Apennines and invaded Etruria, He defeated the army of the consul Flamininius near the lake Thrasymenus, and soon after met the two consuls C. Terentius and L. Aemilius at Cannae.

His army consisted of 40,000 foot and 10,000 horse, when he engaged the Romans at the celebrated battle of Cannae The slaughter was so great, that no less than 40,000 Romans were killed, and the conqueror made a bridge with the dead carcases; and as a sign of his victory, he sent to Carthage three bushels of gold rings which had been taken from 5630 Roman knights slain in the battle. Had Annibal, immediately after the battle, marched his army to the gates of Rome, it must have yielded amidst the general consternation, if we believe the opinions of some writers; but his delay gave the enemy spirit and boldness, and when at last he approached the walls, he was informed that the piece of ground on which his army then stood was selling at a high price in the Roman forum. After hovering for some time round the city, he retired to Capua, where the Carthaginian soldiers soon forgot to conquer in the pleasures and riot of this luxurious city. From that circumstance it has been said, and with propriety, that Capua was a Cannae to Annibal.

After the battle of Cannae the Romans became more cautious, and when the dictator Fabius Maximus had defied the artifice as well as the valour of Annibal, they began to look for better times. Marcellus, who succeeded Fabius in the field, first taught the Romans that Annibal was not invincible.

After many important debates in the Senate, it was decreed that war should be carried into Africa, to remove Annibal from the gates of Rome ; and Scipio, who was the first proposer of the plan, was empowered to put it into execution. When Carthage saw the enemy on her coasts, she recalled Annibal from Italy; and that great general is said to have left, with tears in his eyes, a country which during 16 years he hard kept under continual alarms, and which he could almost call his own.

He and Scipio met near Carthage, and after a parley, in which neither would give the preference to his enemy, they determined to come to a general engagement. The battle was fought near Zama: Scipio made a great slaughter of the enemy, 20,000 were killed, and the same number made prisoners.

Annibal, after he had lost the day, fled to Adrumetum. Soon after this decisive battle, the Romans granted peace to Carthage, on hard conditions: and afterwards Annibal, who was jealous and apprehensive of the Roman power, fled to Syria, to king Antiochus, whom he advised to make war against Rome, and lead an army into the heart of Italy. Antiochus distrusted the fidelity of Annibal, and was conquered by the Romans, who granted him peace on the condition of his delivering their mortal enemy into their hands.

Annibal, who was apprised of this, left the court of Antiochus, and fled to Prusias king of Bithynia. He encouraged him to declare war against Rome, and even assisted him in weakening the power of Eumenes king of Pergamus, who was in alliance with he Romans. The senate received intelligence that Annibal was in Bithynia, and immediately sent ambassadors, amongst whom was L. Q. Flaminius, to demand him of Prusias. The king was unwilling to betray Annibal and violate the laws of hospitality, but at the same time he dreaded the power of Rome. Annibal extricated him from his embarrassment, and when he heard that his house was besieged on every side, and all means of escape fruitless, he took a dose of poison, which he always carried with him in a ring on his finger; and as he breathed his last, he exclaimed, Solvamus diuturna cura populum Romanum, quando mortem senis expectare longum censet.

He died in his 70th year, according to some, about 182 years B.C. That year was famous for the death of the three greatest generals of the age, Annibal, Scipio, and Philopoemen.

The death of so formidable a rival was the cause of great rejoicing in Rome ; he had always been a professed enemy to the Roman name; and ever endeavoured to destroy its power. If he shone in the field, he also distinguished himself by his studies. He was taught Greek by Sosilus, a Lacedaemonian, and he even wrote some books in that language on different subjects.

It is remarkable that the life of Annibal, whom the Romans wished so many times to destroy by perfidy, was never attempted by any of his soldiers or countrymen.

He made himself as conspicuous in the government of the state as at the head of armies, and though his enemies reproached him with the rudeness of laughing in the Carthaginian senate, while every senator was bathed in tears for the misfortunes of the country, Annibal defended himself by saying that he, who had been bred all his life in a camp, ought to be dispensed with all the more polished feelings of a capital.

He was so apprehensive for his safety, that when he was in Bithynia his house was fortified like a castle, and on every side there were secret doors which could give immediate escape if his life was ever attempted. When he quitted Italy, and embarked on board a vessel for Africa, he so strongly suspected the fidelity of his pilot, who told him that the lofty mountains which appeared at a distance was a promontory of Sicily, that he killed him on the spot; and when he was convinced of his fatal error, he gave a magnificent burial to the man whom he had so falsely murdered, and called the promontory by his name.

The labours which he sustained, and the inclemency of the weather to which he exposed himself in crossing the Alps, so weakened one of his eyes, that he ever after lost the use of it.

The Romans have celebrated the humanity of Annibal, who, after the battle of Cannae, sought the body of the fallen consul amidst the heaps of slain, and honoured it with a funeral becoming the dignity of Rome. He performed the same friendly offices to the remains of Marcellus and Tib. Gracchus, who had fallen in battle.

He often blamed the unsettled measures of his country; and when the enemy had thrown into his camp the head of his brother Asdrubal, who had been conquered as he came from Spain with a reinforcement into Italy, Annibal said that the Carthaginian arms would no longer meet with their usual success.

Juvenal, in speaking of Annibal, observes that the ring which caused his death made a due atonement to the Romans for the many thousand rings which had been sent to Carthage from the battle of Cannae.

Annibal, when in Spain, married a woman of Castulo.

The Romans entertained such a high opinion of him as a commander, that Scipio, who conquered him, calls him the greatest general that ever lived, and gives the second rank to Pyrrhus the Epirot, and places himself the next to these in merit and abilities. It is plain that the failure of Annibal's expedition in Italy did not arise from his neglect, but from that of his countrymen, who gave him no assistance; far from imitating their enemies of Rome, who even raised in one year 18 legions to oppose the formidable Carthaginian.

Livy has painted the character of Annibal like an enemy, and it is much to be lamented that this celebrated historian has withheld the tribute due to the merits and virtues of the greatest of generals.


Cornelius Nepos in Vita - Livy 21, 22 etc. - Plutarch in Flamin. etc. - Justin 32, c. 4. - Silius Italicus 1 etc. - Appian - Florus 2 and 3 - Polybius - Diodorus - Juvenal 10 v. 159 etc. - Valerius Maximus - Horatius 4 Ode 4, epode 16.



Aphidas, a son of Arcas king of Arcadia.Paus. 8

Aphidna, a part of Attica, which received its name from Aphidnus, one of the companions of Theseus. Herodot.

Aphidnus, a. friend of Aeneas, killed by Turnus. Virg. Aen. 9, v. 702

Aphoebetus one of the conspirators against Alexander. Curt. 6, c. 7.

Aphrices, an Indian prince, who defended the rock Aornos, with 2,000 foot and 15 elephants. He was killed by his troops, and his head sent to Alexander.

Aphrodisia, an island in the Persian Gulf, where Venus is worshipped.

- Festivals in honour of Venus, celebrated in different parts of Greece, but chiefly in Cyprus. They were first instituted by Cinyras, from whose family the priests of the goddess were always chosen. All those that were initiated offered a piece of money to Venus as a harlot, and received as a mark of the favours of the goddess, a measure of salt and a phallos; the sale, because Venus arose from the sea; the phallos, because she is the goddess of all wantonness. They were celebrated at Corinth by harlots, and in every part of Greece they were very much frequented. Strab. 14. - Athen.

Aphrodisias, a town in Caria, sacred to Venus. Tac. Ann. 3, c.62.

Aphrodisium (or a), a town of Apulia, built by Diomede in honour of Venus.

Aphrodisium, a city on the eastern parts of Cyprus nine miles from Salamis.

—— -A promontory with an island of the same name on the coast of Spain, Plin. 3, c. 3.

Aphrodite, the Grecian name of Venus, frnm aphros, froth, because Venus is said to have been born from the froth of the ocean. Hesiod. Th. 195. - Plin. 36, c. 5.

Aphytae, or Aphytia, A city of Thrace, near Pallena, where Jupiter Ammon was worshipped. Lysander besieged the town; but the god of the place appeared to him in a dream and advised him to raise the siege, which he immediately did. Paus. 3, c.18.

Apia, an ancient name of Peloponnesus, which it received from King Apis. It was afterwards called Aegialeia, Pelasgia, Argia, and at last Peloponnesus, the island of Pelops. Homer Il. 1 v. 70. Also the name of the earth, worshipped among the Lydians as a powerful deity. Herodotus 4, c. 59

Apianus, or Apion, was born at Oasis in Egypt. whence he went to AleKandria, of which he was deemed a citizen. He succeeded Theus in the profession of rhetoric in the reign of Tiberius, and wrote a book against the Jews, which Josephus refuted. He was at the head of an embassy which the people of Alexandria sent to Caligula, to complain of the Jews. Seneca Ep. 88, Plin Praef. Hist.

Apiciata, married Sejanus by whom she had three children. She was repudiated. Tacit, Ann. 4, c. 3.

Apicius, a famous glutton in Rome. There were three of the same name, all famous for their voracious appetite. The first lived in the time of the republic republic, the second in the reign of Augustus and Tiberius, and the third under Trajan. The second was the most famous, as he wrote a book on the pleasures and incitements of eating. He hanged himself after he had consumed the greatest part of his estate. The best edition of Apicius Caelius de Arte Coquinaria, is that of Amst, 12mo 1703. Juv. 11 v.3. - Martial 2, ep. 69

Apidanus, one of the chief rivers of Thessaly, at the south of the Peneus, into which it falls a little above Larissa. Lucan 6 v. 372.

Apina and Apinae, a city of Apulia, destroyed with Trica, in its neighbourhood, by Diomedes; whence came the proverb of Apina et Trica, to express trifling things. Martial 14 ep.1, - Plin. 3, c. ii.

Apiola and Apiolae. a town of Italy, taken by Tarquin the Proud. The Roman Capitol was begun with spoils taken from that city. Plin 3. c. 5.

Apion, a surname of Ptolemy, one of the descendants of Ptolemy Lagus.

- a grammarian.

Apis, one of the ancient kings of Peloponnesus, son of Phoroneus and Laodice. Some say that Apollo was his father, and that he was king of Argos, while others call him king of Sicyon, and fix the time of his reign above 200 years earlier, which is enough to show he is but obscurely known, if known at all. He was a native of Naupactus, and descended from Inachus. He received divine honours after death, as he had been munificent and humane to his subjects. The country when he reigned was called Apia, and afterwards it received the name of Pelasgia, Argia, or Argalia, and at last that of Peloponnesus, from Pelops. Some, amongst whom is Varro and St. Augustine, have imagined that Apis went to Egypt with a colony of Greeks, and that he civilized the inhabitants, and polished their manners, for which they made him a god after death, and paid divine honours to him under the name of Serapis. This tradition, according to some of the moderns, is without foundation. Aeschylus in Supplices, — Augustine de Civ. Dei. 18 c. 5 - Paus 2 c. 5.— .—Apollod. 2, c. i.

——A son of Jason, born in Arcadia; he was killed by the horses of Aetolus, Paus. 5, c. 1.

——A town of Egypt on the lake Mareotis.

——A god of the Egyptians, worshipped under the form of an ox. Some say that Isis and Osiris are the deities worshipped under this name, because during their reign they taught the Egyptians agriculture. The Egyptians believed that the soul of Osiris was really departed into tho ox, where it wished to dwell, because that animal had been of the most essential service in the cultivation of the ground, which Osiris had introduced into Egypt. The ox that was chosen was always distinguished by particular marks: his body was black; he had a square white spot upon the forehead, the figure of an eagle, upon the back, a knot under the tongue like a beetle; the hairs of his tail were double, and his right side was marked with a whitish spot resembling the crescent of the moon. Without these, an ox could not be taken as the god Apis; and it is to be imagined that the priests gave these distinguishing characteristics to the animal on which their credit and even prosperity depended. The festival of Apis lasted seven days; the ox was led in a solemn procession by the priests, and every one was anxious to receive him into his house, and it was believed that the children who smelt his breath received the knowledge of futurity. The ox was conducted to the banks of the Nile with much ceremony, and if he had lived to the time which their sacred books allowed, they drowned him in the river, and embalmed his body, and buried it in solemn state in the city of Memphis. After his death, which sometimes was natural, the greatest cries and lamentations were heard in Egypt, as if Osiris was just dead; the priests shaved thejr heads, which was a sign of the deepest mourning. This continued till another ox appeared, with the proper characteristics to succeed as the deity, which was followed with the greatest acclamations, as if Osiris was returned to life. This ox, which was found to represent Apis, was left 40 days in the city of the Nile before he was carried to Memphis, during which time none but women were permitted to appear before him, and this they performed, according to their superstitious notions, in a wanton and indecent manner. There was also an ox worshipped at Heliopolis, under the name of Mnevis; some suppose that he was Osiris, but others maintain that the Apis of Memphis was sacred to Osiris, and Mnevis to Isis. When Cambyses came into Egypt, the people were celebrating the festivals of Apis with evety mark of joy and triumph, which the conqueror interpreted as an insult upon himself. He called the priests of Apis, and ordered the deity itself to come before him. When he saw that an ox was the object of their veneration, and the cause of such rejoicings, he wounded it on the thigh, ordered the priests to be chastised, and commanded his soldiers to slaughter such as were found celebrating such riotous festivals. The god Apis had generally two stables, or rather temples. If he ate from the hand, it was a favourable omen ; but if he refused the food that was offered him, it was interpreted as unlucky. From this Germanicus, when he visited Egypt, drew the omens of his approaching death. When his oracle was consulted, incense was burnt on an altar, and a piece of money placed upon it, after which the people that wished to know futurity applied their ear to the mouth of the god, and immediately retired, stopping their ears till they had departed from the temple. The first sounds that were heard, were taken as the answer of the oracle to their questions. Paus. 7, c. 22, — Herodot. 2 & 3. — Plin, 8, c. 38, &.c.—Strab. 7. — Plut. in Isid. & Osir.—Apollod. i, c. 7. 1. 2, Ch. I. — Mela, i, c. 9. — Plin. 8, c. 39, &c. —Strab.7.—AElian. V.H. - 4 & 6, —Diod. i.

AplsEon, son of Hippasus, assisted Priam against the Greeks, at the head of a. Fsoiiian army. He wag killed by Lycomedes. Horn* 11. 17. v-3+S. ~^-Anoth*Yon the same side. Apttlus &alba, a celebrated buffoon in the time of Tiberius. Jitv. 5, v. 4, Apollinftres ludi, games celebrated at Rome in honour of Apollo. They originated ftc-m the following circumstance. An old prophetic poem informed the Romans, thai if they instituted yearly amea to Aoollo, and made a collection of money or his service, they would be able to repel the enemy whose approach already threatened their destruction. The first time they were celebrated, Rome was alarmed by the approach of the enemy, and instantly the people rushed out of the cily, and saw a cloud of arrows discharged from the sky en the troops of the enemy. With this heavenly assistance they easily obtained the victory. The people generally sat crowned with laurel at the representation of these games, -which were usually celebrated at the option of the pretor, till the year tf.C. 545, when a law was passed to settle the celebration yearly on the same day about the nones of July. When this alteration happened, Rome was infested with a dreadful pestilence, which, however, seemed to be appeased by this act of religion. Liv.t c. i'. is, C. Sitlpltiiia, a grammarian g fo of Carthage, in the second century, who is supposed to be the author of the verges prefixed to Terence's plays as arguments.——A writer better known by the name of Sidonius. Vid. Sidomus. ApOlliHld.C6i a preck in the wars of Darius and Alexander, &c. Curt, 4, c. 5. ApoillnlB ELTJC, a. place at the entrance of the Sibyrs cave- Virg. sBn- 6,—— Promontoritim, a promontory of Africa, 2,iv* 30, c. ^4-—•—Tern* plum, a place in Thrace,——-in Lycia. sEiiaii. Apollo, son of Jupiter and Latona, called also Phoebus, is often confounded with the sun. According to Cicero, 3, de Nat Deor., there were four persons of this name. Th first was son of Vulcan, and the lultlary god of the Athenians. The second was son of Corybasj and was bom in Crete, for thfl . dominion of which he disputed even with Jupiter himself. The third was son of Jupiter and Latona, and came from the nations of the Hyperboreans to Delphi- The fourth was bom InJ Arcadia, and called Nornion, because he gave laws to the in* habitants. To the son of Jupiter and Latona all the actions of the others seem to have been attributed. The Apollo, son of Vulcan, was the same as the Orus of the Egyptians, and was the most ancient, from whom the actions of the others have been copied- The three others seem to be of Grecian origin. The tradition that the son of La[ona was born in the floating island of Delos, is taken from the Egyptian mythology, which asserts that the son of Vulcan, which is supposed to-be Orus, was saved by "his mother Isis from the persecution of Typhon. and entrusted to the care of Latona, who concealed him in the island of Chert*1 mis. 'when Latona was pregnant by Jupiter, Juno, who was ever jealous of her husband's amours* raised the serpent Python to torment Latona, who was refused a place to give birth to her children, till Neptune, moved at the severity of her fate, raised the island of Delos from the bottom of tha sea, where Latona brought forth Apollo and Diana. Apollo was the god of all the fine arts, of medicine, music, poetry, and eloquence, of all which he was deemed the inventor. He had received from Jupiter the power of knowing futurity, and he was the only one of the gods whose oracles werejn ' general repute over the world. Hia amours with Leucothoe, Daphne, Jssa, Bolina, Corcnis, Dy-mene, Cyrene, Chione, AcacaMis, Calliope, &c.T are well kirown, and the various shapes he assumed to gratify his passion. He was very fund of young Hyacintnus, whom he accidental [y killed with a quoit; as also of Cyparis^us, who wat. changed into a cypress iree. "When his .son ^scufapius had ' been killed with the thunders pf Jupiter fur raising L the dead to life, Apollo, in his resentment, killed the Cyclops who had fabricated the thunderbolts. iupitec was incensed at this act of violence, and he anit.hed Apollo from heaven, and deprived him of his dignity. The exiled deity came to Admetus king of Thessaly, and hired himself to be one of his shepherds, in which ignoble employment he remained nine years', from which circumstance he was called the god of shepherds, and at his sacrifices a wolf was generally offered, ns that animal is the declared enemy of the sheepfold. During liis residence in Thessaly, he rewarded the tender treat-' merit of Admetus. He gave film a chariot drawn by a lion and a bull, with whiuh he was able to obtain in marriage A Icestu the daughter of Pelias; and aooit after, The Parca; granted, at Apollo's request, that Admetus might be redeemed from1 ALKJ]|I' witH hi* fiiihm, diihl [|ui 1m wiH king of AIM^*I wlnl'1 iLh"*nnh him kuij uf SicyDii, and fix the limn uf Itii rcl^n jthnvn j.-j vctir- curlier, whiA I- rtunHili I" "Haw hi) jn IriiL uWurcly ktiown, if known ut ull. Ha WBH 4 unlive of S'uupactum, and descended from Jnnchui. He received divine honour^ after death, aa he had been munificent and humane to his subjects. The counrry where he reigned was called Apia ; 5itd afterwards it received the name of Pelasgia, Argia, or ArgoNs, and at Uisl that of Peloponnesus, from Pdops. Some, amongst whom is Varro and St. AugusiiiLe, have imagined lhal Apii went to F-gypl with a colony of Greeks., and ihiU lie civilized the inhabitants, and polished their manners, for which they made him a god after death, and paid divine honours to him under the This tradition, according to cniif is without fLnindaUoii. Attaint. a. i3. c. j.— jW. j, •:. i. — -A son of Jason, i: WJIH kilJed by tJio horses of , c. i. —— A tnwii uf Egypt on i, — A ^?ii <>f ifia Kaypibuis, name of «Kjmc uf 1'aus. •*, r. v- :nini ^]ti>hjHp the lakn Ari:nli,i ; h they ninlnr ihn form HIM! lUiiiH HID th« t,Mijili< ilir KtivpU'iikK pidrJMiltnier 'J'ho Ley |>chi;vrJ ilini NIU Honl ihlOniri. wim rcaUy departed LiiE" (hi: NIC, wli^n- It withcd to dwell, because that uniiuiil N^l bi^ii uf ihc num c^ciniul nervice in the ruliivuMini (if (hu «nmnJ, which Osiris had introduced inii> Egypt. The ox that was chosen was (ihvjys dlstijinniihed by particular marks : his body was black ; he had a square white spot upon the foreheud, the figure of an eagle unon the tacit, a knot under the tongue like a beetle; the hairs of hk tail were double, and hi* right side wns marked with a whitish spot, resembling the crescent of the moon. "Without these, an cue could not be taken as the god Apis ; and Jl is in be mia^uicd that the priests R.ive thtse tli^LljijitihhJni' dkArn^tcriHtics to tin? aniinJil on winch their iTuifit and even pros-perity depend I'd. Thr festival i>f Api1* lattcd seven day* ; [lie it\ WLIH ltd in u pncMs, nriLl tvciy n"^ wnn into hi.t >nju!»(', and it wut b wlji> snit-Ji Int hi'Carh rcrt futurity, 'J'he proccision by the oici io receive him d that the children ihu knowledge of tn th* banks of futurity, 'J'he u* wui (roiiduaed tn the Njtc with mucli irrcir]»Fiy» aud if he had lived In the tune whLdj thrir Hatred books allowed, they dr LI wucd him in ihc rt^cr, and embaEoied hia body, and buried it in nolcJim stale, in the city of Mem-phi.-;. After his dciuh, which some nmes was natural* the greatest erica and lanjeotatioflS were heard ip ____________API_____________f Egypt, as if Osiris was just dcnd ; the priests sha^d the^r heads, which was a sign of ihe deepest mourning. This continued till another ox appeared, with the proper characterises to succeed as the deily, which was fallowed wiih the gteatest ac-cEamations, as if Osiris waa returned to life. This OX, which was found to represent Apis, was left 40 days in ihe city of the NiJu before he was carried to Memphis, during which lime none but women were permitted to appear before him, and this they performed, according to their superstitious notions, in a wanton and indecent, manner. There was aEso fin on worshipped at Heliopolis, under the name of Mnevis; some suppose that he; was Obiris, but others maintain that the ApLs of Memphis was sacred to Gsirjs> and Mnevis to Isis. When Cambysts came into Egypt, the people were celebrating, the festivals of Apis with every mark of joy and triumph, which the conqueror interpreted as an insult upi.iji liini'^elf. lie called the priests of Apis, and ordered the deity itself to come before him. When he snw that an OK was the object of their veneration, and the cause of such rejoicings, he wounded it on the thigh, ordered the priests to Lu chastised, and commanded his soldiers to slaughter such as were fuund celebrating such riotous festivals. The &ud Apis had generally two stables, or ralher tiNnjiks. If Fiu -tie frnrn tins hnnd, it was. a Wdit ollncd liiin, a Win liiLtiipjotcd im nnlmhy. Kin HI tllit t^'LLIlmiH Llh, wfirn jio viiilPil KplV]i1H djerf llm (jiiicnn of hit nujuuiirliiinj ilrnth. VVJten hi* oracle wJ* ci>Llillhcd, IEIUCLI^C WUH huitit mi UIL allar. and a piece of money placed upon it, Eiftcr which the people tliac wisfjed to know futurity applied their ear to the mouth of the fiod, and immediately retired, slopping their ears till they had departed from the temple. The first sounds that were lieard, were taken as the answer of the oracle to their questions. J'tzus. 7, c, 22.—fferedot. 2^3. —Fiiit. 3, c, 38, &c.—Stra&. j.—f'frii. irt Isiit. &* Ostr".—Afoliod* i, r. 7. 1. 2,
Apitius Galba, a celebrated buffoon in the time of Tiberius. ^ttv. 5^ v, 4,

Apollinares ludi, games celebrated at Rome in honour of Apollo. They originated from the following circumstance. An old prophetic pai;m infiirmed the Romans, thai if they in-stituted yeiirfy games to Anollo, and made a collection of money lor his service, they would be able to repel the enemy whose approach already Lhrcntciied their destruction. The fir»C time they were ctlt^hr.ileil, Rome wus alarmed by the approach of ilie enemy, and instantly the people rushed out "f the ciiy, and saw a cloud of arrows discharged from the «ky on the troops of the enemy. With this heavenly assistance they ea&ily obtained the victory. The people generally sat crowned with laurel at the representation of these games, which were usually celebrated at the option of the pretor, till the year U.C.545, when a law was passed to settle the celebration yearly on the same day about the nones of July, when this alteration happened. Rome was infested with a dreadful pestilence which, however, seemed to be appeased by this act of religion. Liv,25, C, 12.

Apollinaris, C. Sulpitius, a grammarian of Carthage, in the second century, who is supposed to he the author of the verses prefixed to Terence's plays as arguments.

——A writer better known by the name of Sidonius. Vid. Sidonius.

Apollinldea, a preek m the wars of Darius and Alexander, &c. Curt. 4, c. 5*

ApoUInifl arx, A place at the entrance of the Sibyls cave. Vsr?. s&ii. 6.—— Promontoriuin, a promontory of Alrica. Lfv. 30, c. 24.——Tem-plum, a place in Thrace,——in Lycia* /Elitui. V. ff. 6, c- 9.


Apollo


son of Jupiter and Latona, called also Phoebus, is often confounded with the sun. According to Cicero, 3, de Natura Deor., there were four persons of this name. The first was son of Vulcan, and the tutelary god of the Athenians. The second was son of Corylias, and was born in Crete, for the dominion of which he disputed even with Jupiter himself. The third was son of Jupiter and Latona, and came from the nation of the Hyperboreans to Delphi- The fourth was born in Arcadia, and called Nomion, because he gave laws to the inhabitants. To the son of Jupiter and Latona all the actions of the Others seem to have been attributed. The Apollo, son of Vulcan, was the same as the Orus of the Egyptians, and was the most ancient, from whom the actions of the others have been copied. The three others seem to be of UrcHini origin. The tiadition that the son of IJLUUM WJLH liorn in the ficiittinff island of DeJoi, it Ifikrti f|i>m llm IC((y]itiiin mythology, which. [uturriH tliai the N<»n of Vtilnin, which ii* aupifosed to ba OrLih, wi^t juivecl by hi* mn[li#r IHI-J from Tho Execution of Ty plum, nnd entrusted to ihe care of atorja, who concealed him in the island of Chem-mis. 'When Latona was pregnant by Jupiter, Juno, who was ever jealous of her husband's amours, raised the strpont Python to lorment LatoflaP who was refused a placo to give birth to her children, till Neptune, moved at the teverity of her fate, raised the island of Uelos. from the hotlom of lha sea, where Latona brought forth Apollo and Diana. Apollo was the god of all ihe fine arts. Of medicine, mii-sic, poeiry, and eloquence, of all which he: was deemed the inventor. He had received from Jupiter tbe power of knowing futurity, and Be was the only one of the gods whose oracles were in general repute over the world- His amours with I.eucothoe, Daphne, Issa, liolina, Coronis, Cly-mene, Cyrene, Chione, Acacallis, CdlHopi:, &c., are well known, and Ihe various shapes he assumed to gratify his passion. He was very fond of young Hyacintnus. whom he accidentally killed with a quoit; as also of Cyparib-^Lis, who was changed into a cypress tree. \Vhen lus son /Escnlapius had' httn killed with the [bunders of Jupiier for raising" [he dttLtl to life, Apolli], in his resentment, killed the- Lytlr>pH wbo had fabricated -the thunderbolts. ;upiter was. iticeniied at this act of violence, and he unshed Apollo from heaven, and deprived him of hi'i dignity. The exiled deity came to Admetus king of Thessaly, and hired himself to be one of his shepherds, in which ignoble employment he remained nine years ; from which circumstance be wascalled the god of shepherds, and at his sacrifices a wolf was generally offered, as that animal is the declared enenjy of the sheepfbld. During his residence in Thessaly, he rewarded the tender treatment of Admetus. He gave him a chariot drawn by a lion and a bull, with which he was able to obtain En marriage Alcesie the daughter of Pelias; and soon after, the Parca? granted, at Apollo's request, that Admetus might be redeemed from.1 death, if another person laid down his life for him. He assisted Neptune in build ing the walk of Troy: and whea he was refused ihe promised reward from Laomedon the king of the country, lie destroyed the inhabitants by a pe<4ilepce- As poon as lift was born, Apullo destroyed with arrows the serpent Python, whom Juno had ncnt to persecute Latona; Tiencr; he wii1-. tailed Fyllmis ; and he afterwaTrt-s vindicated the honour uf his mother, by panting to death tliu duUlrcn of llifl proud Niobc. viti. Niiflw.'. lie writ not the inventor of the lyre, as some have inmjfincd, but Mercury gave it him, and r*i tivtd n» n tuAjird (lie famous codu-ceus widi which A|n>!l<> WJIH wont to drive the flock? of Admcius, Jlis cuiilrit with Pirn mid Marsyas, and the punishment inflicted up-ni Midns, are well _kuownd He received I ho itjmjimcs of Ditchi]*, "Delius, Cyiuhin^ Pn;;in. Ddnlm in, Neuritis, I.y-cius, dimiiSp Ismenitu, Vnl|iLi'Lu>ih Sminiheu^. Ftc.t for rea&ons whi4.li m-& cxplainM under those word*. Apollo i.-i gnici'nilly rtijrtHeiittd with Um£ hair, and the HLIIILJUIH were final of ln;ijiatlii£ hn figure, and ihcrelWo in their V'^ifh tln-y wcru remarkable for llicir fine heads of hjir, which they cut shuft at the a^eof 17 or 18, He is always represented as a tall, beardbss young man, with a handsome shape, holding in his nand a bow, and sometimes a Lyre ; his head is generally surrounded with beams of light. He was the deiiy who, according ID the notions of the ancients, inflicted plagues, and in that moment he appeared surrounded with clouds. His worship and power were universally acknowledged; he had temples and statues in every country! particularly in Egypt, Greece, and Ita3y, His stalue, which stood upon mount Actium, as a mark to mariners to avoid the dangerous Coasts, was particularly famous, and it appeared Co 3. great distance at sea. Augustus, before the battle of Actium, addressed himself to it for victory. The griffin, the cock, the grasshopper, ihe wolf, the crow, [he swan, the hawk, the olive, the laurel, the pjlni tree, &£., were sacred to him; and in his sacrifices, wolves and hawks were offered, as they were the natural enemies of the flocks, over which he presided- Bulfocks and lambs were also immolated l° him. As he presided over poetry, he was often seen On mount Parnassus with the nine muses. His most famous oracles were at Delphi, Delos, Clares, Tenedos, Cyrrha, and Palara. His most splendid temple ^vas at Delphi, where every nation and individual made considerable presents when they consulted the oracle. ' Augustus, after the battle of Actium, built him a temple on mount Palatine, which he enriched with a valuable library. He had a famous colossus in Rhodes, which was one of the seven wonders of the world. Apollo has been taken for the sun ; "but it may he proved by different passages ID the ancient writers, that Apollo, the Sun, Ph«-bus, and Hyperion, were all different characters and deities, though confounded together. When once Apollo was addressed as the Sun, and represented with a crown of rays on his head, the idea was adopted by every writer, and from thence: Arose the mistake. Oi-ril. Met. \,Jab. 9 £c 10,1. 4, Ja&. 3, &c,—i-'ins. 2, c. 7. 1. 5, c. 7. I. 7, c. so. 1. o, c. 30, &c.—ffygia, f<*f>. 9, 14, 50, Q3, 140, itfi, S$H- aoj, &.O.—Stat. i. Tlieb. 560.—Tiouil. a, eL a- —PIvf. de Amor.—-Hout. II. &* Hymn, m AfiolL —Virf- &K. a, 3, &c. G. 4, v. 333*—Hem*, i, od, tth—Lucia*. Dial, Met-. &* Vulc.—Profert. i, gl, x&.—Catlifaatft* fa Ap$2l.—A/cited, i, c- 3, 4j & 9* 1. a, c. 5. 1- 3, c, 5, 10, £ 12,——-One of [he ships in the fleet of ^Kiieaji, Vi'~g- A'lit. io,v. 17!.

——Also a temple of Apollo upon mount Leucas, which appeared at a great di>Mmjtf at pea; and served as a guide to mariner*, ami reminded them to avoid tfie dangerous rouka that were along the coast, Virg. J%£H. 3, v. 375, ApoIloCTfttGS, a. friend of Dion, supposed by some to be the .son of Dionysiu',. 'Apolloddnig, a famous grammarian and my-thologist of Athens, son uf Astlepias and disciple toPanxtiusthe Khodian philosopher-. He flourished about 115 years before the chri^iian era. and wrote a history of Athens, besides other work1;. Hut of all his compositions, nothing is evljiiit but his J3i&/ittf&ffa, a valuable work, divided into three books. It is an abridged history of the podsh and of the aricivnt heroes, of whose actions and genealogy" it gives a. true and faithful account. The best edition is that of Huync, (roett. in Svof 4 vols. 1782, Afht'rt.-^rtiit. 7, Cr 37,—Died, t &. TL?.

——A tragic jjott of Ciliila, who wrote iray^lK'i entitled Ulysses> I'lLye^ttiif fat;.

——A comic: poet of Gela JIL Sicily, in lie jige of Mcnander, who wrote 47 plays.

——An architect of HjmasciLH, who directed the building of Trajan1!] bridge across the Danube. He was put to death by Adrian, to whom, when in a private station, he had spoken in too boTd a manner.

——'A writer who composed a history of Farthia.——A disciple of Epicurus, the most learned of bis school, and deservedly surnamed the illustrious. He wrote about 40 volumes on different subjects. Dies'.

—— A painter of AthensT to irvhom Zeuxis was a pupil. Two of his paintings were admired at Pergamus, in the ape of Pliny; a priest in a suppliant posture, and Ajas struck with Minerva's thunders, fitft* 55, c- g.

——-A statuary in the age of Alexander. He was of such an irascible disjftsilion, that he destroyed his own pieocs upon the least provocation, Plhi. 34h c. S.

——A rhetorician of Pergamus, precepior and friend to Augustus, who wrote a book on rhetoric* Strtib. 13.

-" • A trugic poet of Tarsus.

——A Lemnian who wrote on husbandry.

——A physician of Tarentum,

——Another of Cytilira- "

Apolloniaf a fcniival at -^gijlca En honour of Apollo ami JJiana. It arose from this circumstance: these two deities came to ^cialta, after the conquest of ihe serpent Python ; but they were frightened away, and fled to Crete, ^gialea^ wa.s soon visited with an epidemical distemper, and the inhabitants, by the advice of their prophets, sent seven chosen boys, with the same number of girls, to entreat them to return to ^Egialea. Apollo and Diana granted their petition, in honour/of which a temple was raised to *&$&, the goddess offorsva-sfofti and ever after a Dumber of youths, of both sexes, were chosen to march in sokmn procession, as if anxious to bring back Apollo and Diana. Pausan. in Corinth*

——A town of Mygdonia,

—— of Crete,

——of Sicily,

-—on ihe coast of Asia Minor.

——Another on the coast of Thrace, part of which was built on a hitwill inland of Pontus, where Apollo had a temple.

——A town of Macedonia, on ihe coasts of the Adriatic.

——A city of Thrace.

———Another on mount Parnassus

Apolloni&deS, a tyrant of Sicily, compelled to lay down his power by Timuluon.

AppUomaa, tlie wife of Aitalus king of Phrygia, to whom she bore four children*

Apollonldea, a writer of Nicza.

——A physician of Cos at the court of Artaxerxesf who became enamouied of Amytis, the monarches sister, and was some time after put to death for slighting' her after the reception of her favours. APO 63 APP , Stoic phiiosopfier of Chalcist Antoniiius Pius, lo instruct hi^ adopted £OR Marcus Antoninus. \Vhen }u: came to Rome, he refused to go to llie palace, observing that the from Chalcia to Romi:, than from Kome to the palace."

——A geometrician of Perce En Pam-cjiyltat whose works are now lobt- He lived about 940 years before the Christian era, and composed a commentary on Euclid, whose pupifs he attended Hf Alexandria.. He wrote treatises on conic sections, eight of which are no»r extant; and he first endeavoured to explain the causes of the apparent stopping and retrograde motion of the planets, by cycles and epicvcle*, or circles within circles. The best edition of'ApoSlonius is Dr. Halley's O*on. fjl, 1710

-——A poet of Naucratis in Egypt, generally called ApoUonius of ltkl[miin*; are thusc printed at Oxfoi'd, in 410, by Shaw, 1777, in 2 vnK.; aud in i vol. 8vo, 1771); aiKl tluit of Itjunck, Argpncor, iamot :7&o. Qarnfi!. 10, c- i.

-——A Greek orator, sumgmed Molot was a native of Alabanda in Caria- He opened a school of rhetoric at Rhode? and Rome, andliad J. Cicsar 0nd Cicero among his pupils. He discouraged the attendance of those whom he supposed incapable of distinguishing themselves as orators, and he recom-mendedtQ them pursuits more congenial to their abilities. He wrote a history, in which he did not candidly treat the people of JudaH, according to The. complaint of Josephus, contra Apian-—Cic. de Qrat. i, c. 28, 75, 126, & [30. Ad. Fajrtil. 3, ep, 16. De InveKt. r, i:. $i.^Qtfi?i(ii. 3, c. i. T. 12, c. 6.— Sftef. in Ctes. ^.—Plnf. in £W,

——A Greek historian about the age of Augustus, who wrote upon the philosophy of £kna and of his followers, Strab. it

-———A- Stoic philosopher, who attended Cato of tTtica m hU la?.t moments. Pint* IB Cat.

——An officer set over Kgypt by ATejrander. Curt. 4, c. S.
——A wrestler. Pans. 5.

——A physician of Perga-mus, who wrote on agriculture. Varro.

——A grammarian of Alexandria.

——A writer in the age of Antoninus Pius,

——Thyaneu-:, a Pythagorean philosopher, well skilled in the secret arts of magic. Being one day haranguing the populace at Ephesus, hff suddenly exclaimed, Ll Strike the tyrant, strike hira; The blow is given, he is wounded, and fallen 1" At that very moment the emperor- Domitian had been stabbed at Komei The magician acquired niueh reputation when this circumstance wat, known-He was courted by kings and princes, and commanded unusual attention by fjjs numberless artifices. His friend and companion, called Damis, wrate his life, which BOO years after engaged the attention of Fhilostratus* Tn his history the bio-gfariher relates so many curious and extraordinary anecdotes of the hero, that many have justiy deemed it a romance; yec for all this, Hierccles had the jiresuBipiion to compare the impostures of Apollonius wjih the miracles of Jesus Christ.

——A sophist of Afeirandria, distinguished for his Lexicon Grtecum Iliadis el Odyssfff, a book that was beau- tifully edited by VLlloison, in .jto, 2 vols^ Paris, 1773. Apollonius was one of the pupils of Didymus, and flourished in the beginning of the fir^t century, •

——A physician.

——A son of Hotades at the court of Ptolemy Philadelphia.

——Syrus, a PJatonio philosopher.

——Herophflus, wrote concerning ointments.

——A sculptor of Rhodes. ApollGphitneg, a Stoic, who greatly flattered king Antigonus, and maintained that there existed but one virtue, prudence. Die^.

——-A physician in" the court of Antiochus. Pelyb- 5.

——A consic poetn sfiffatt. Anim. 6.

Apomyioflj ^ surname of Jupiter,

AponianBrp an island neat Lilybamm. Hirt. Afric, s,

IKE. ApCfiitlS, a governor of Miesia, rewarded witli a triumphal statue by Otho, for defeating 9000 barbarians, Tacit, Hist. T, c. 79.

ApOmiS, now Akffno, a fountain, with a village of the same name, near Paiavinm in Italy. The waters of the fountain, which were hot, were wholesome, and were supposed to have an oraqnlar power. £uea?i. 7, v. ly-j,—S&ei. in Tibgr. 14. Apoetrophia, a surname of Venus in Bccotia, who was distinguished under these names, Venus Urania, Vulgaria» and Apostrophia. The former v-as the patroness of a pui'e and chaste love; the-second of carnal and sensual desires; and the last incited men lo illicit and unnatural gratifications, to incc'it'i, iiud rjijjt^. Venus AncMrnphia wa.-i invoked hy tlic 'J'heljfiiiSi iluit l hey mif,'ht be saved from hurh iiukiwfiil iicvrfM. Site !M tlie s-ijun as the VviLiiuulLt of tlio Kojn;iHH, I'uus.
Apotheosis, a ceremony observed by the ancient nations of the world, by which they raised their, kings, henj^s, and great men to the rank of deities. The nations of the eait were the first who Eid divine honours to their great men, and the >mans followed their cxampJe, and nor only deified the most prudent and humane of their emperors, but also the most cruel and proRigate. Hemdian* 4, c, -2, has left us an account of the apotheosis of a Roman emperor. After the body of1 tho dccjasc'd was burnt, an ivory image was laid on a couch for seven days, representing- the emperor under the agonies of disease. The city was ia sorrow^ the senate visited it in mourning, and the physicians pronounced it every day in a more decaying state. When the death was announced, a hand of young; senators carried tht couch and image to the Campus Martiu.s, where ic was deposited On an edifice in the form of a pyramid, where sprees and comhnstihle materials were thrown. After this the knights walked round the pile in solemn procession, and the images of the most illustrious Romans were drawn in state, and immediately the new emperor, with a torch, set fire to the pile, and was assisted hy the surrounding multitude. Meanwhile an eagle was let fly from the middle of the pile, which, was supposed to cany the squl' of the deceased to heaven, where he was ranked among the gods. If the deified was a female, a peacock, and not an eagle, tvas 'sent from the flames- The Greeks observed ceremonies much of the same nature. Appift via, a celebrated road leading from tlie pfcita Caperta st Rome to BrundnsiLm, through. Capua, Appius Claudius made it as far a1* Capua,, and it received fta name from him- It was continued and finished D/ Gracchus, J. Gzeev, aad Augustus/ Vid. Via- Lucart. 3, v. 2115.—Siat, a, Syfo. s, v. 12.—Mart. IJT ep. w^—Sitef. ft Tiber. -i\.

which gave him information of his danger, Plut. in Pelop.

——A high priest of Athens, contemporary and intimate with the polemarch of the same name. Id. ibid.

——A Theban taken in the act of adultery, and punished according to the law, and tied to a post in the public place; for which punishment he abolished the oligarchy. Aristot.

Archibiades, a philosopher of Athens, who affected the manners of the Spartans, and was very inimical to the views and meanings of Phocion. Plut. in Phoc.

——An ambassador of Byzantium, &c. Polyaen. 4, c 44.

Archibius, the son of the geographer Ptolemy.

Archidamia, a priestess of Ceres, who, on account of her affection for Aristomenes, restored him to liberty when he had been taken prisoner by her female attendants at the celebration of their festivals. Paus. 4. c. 17.

— - A daughter of Cleadas, who upon hearing that her countrymen the Spartans were debating whether they should send away their women to Crete against the hostile approach of Pyrrhus, seized a sword, and ran to the senate house, exclaiming that the women were as able to fight as the men. Upon this the decree was repealed. Plut. in Pyrrh. — Polyaen. 8. c. 8.

Archidamus, son of Theopompus king of Sparta, died before his father. Paus.

——Another, king of Sparta, son of Anaxidamus, succeeded by Agasicles.

—— Another, son of Agesilaus of the family of the Proclidae.

——Another, grandson of Leotychidas by his son Zeuxidamus. He succeeded his grandfather, and reigned in conjunction with Plistoanax. He conquered the Argives and Arcadians, and privately assisted the Phocians in plundering the temple of Delphi. He was called to the aid of Tarentum against the Romans, and killed there in a battle, after a reign of 33 years. Diod. 16. —Xenoph.

——Another, son of Kudamidas.

——Another, who conquered the Helots, after a violent earthquake. Diod. 11

——A son of Agesilaus, who led the Spartan auxiliaries to Cleombrotus at the battle of Leuctra, and was killed in a battle against the Lucanians. B.C. 338.

——A son of Xenius Theopompus. Paus.

Archidas, a tyrant of Athens, killed by his troops.

Archidemus, a Stoic philosopher, who willingly exiled himself among the Parthians. Plut. de Exil.

Archideus, a son of Amyntas king of Macedonia.Justin. 7, c. 4.

Archidium, a city of Crete, named after Archidius son of Tegeates. Paus. 8, c. 53.

Archigallus, the high priest of Cybele's temple. Vid. Galli.Br>
Archigenes, a physician, born at Apamea in Syria. He lived in the reign of Domitian. Nerva, and Trajan, and died in the 73rd year of his age. He wrote a treatise on adorning the hair, as also 10 books on fevers. Juv. 6, v. 235.

Archilochus, a poet of Paros, who wrote elegies, satires, odes, and epigrams, and was the first who introduced "iambics in his verses. He had courted Neobule the daughter of Lycambes, and had received promises of marriage; but the latter gave her to another superior to the poet in rank and fortune; upon which Archilochus wrote such a bitter satire, that Lycambes hanged himself in a fit of despair. The Spartans condemned his verses on account of their indelicacy, and banished him from their city as a petulant and dangerous citizen. He flourished 685 B.C., and it is said that he was assassinated. Some fragments of his poetry remain, which display vigour and animation, boldness and vehemence, in the highest degree; from which reason, perhaps, Cicero calls virulent edicts, Archilochia edicta. Cic. Tusc. i. - Quintil. 10, c. i.—Herodot. i, c. 12.—Horat. Art. Poet. v. 79. — Athen, 1, 2, &c.

——A son of Nestor, killed by Memnon in the Trojan war, Homer. Il. 2.

——A Greek historian who wrote a chronological table, and other works, about the 20th or 30th olympiad.


Archimedes


Archimedes, a famous geometrician of Syracuse, who invented a machine of glass that faithfully represented the motion of all the heavenly bodies. When Marcellus the Roman consul besieged Syracuse Archimedes constructed machines which suddenly raised up in the air the ships of the enemy from the bay before the city, and let them fall with such violence into the water that they sunk. He set them also on fire with his burning glasses. When the town was taken, the Roman general gave strict orders to his soldiers not to hurt Archimedes, and he even offered a reward to him who should bring him alive and safe into his presence. All these precautions were useless; the philosopher was so deeply engaged in solving a problem, that he was even ignorant that the enemy were in possession of the town; and a soldier, without knowing who he was, killed him, because he refused to follow him, B.C. 212.

Marcellus raised a monument over him, and placed upon it a cylinder and a sphere; but the place remained long unknown, till Cicero, during his questorship in Sicily, found it near one of the gates of Syracuse, surrounded with thorns and brambles.

Some suppose that Archimedes raised the site of the towns and villages of Egypt, and began those mounds of earth by means of which communication is kept from town to town during the inundations of kept from town to town during the inundations of the Nile.

The story of his burning glasses had always appeared fabulous to some of the moderns, till the experiments of Buffon demonstrated it beyond contradiction. These celebrated glasses were supposed to be reflectors made of metal, and capable of producing their effect at the distance of a bowshot.

The manner in which he discovered how much brass a goldsmith had mixed with gold in making a golden crown for the king is well known to every modern hydrostatic, as well as the pumping screw which still bears his name.

Among the wild schemes of Archimedes, is his saying that, by means of his machines, he could move the earth with ease, if placed on a fixed spot near it. Many of his works are extant, especially treatises de sphaera et cylindro, circuli dimensio, de lineis spiralibus, de quadratura paraboles, de numero arenae, &c.; the best edition of which is that of David Rivaltius, fol. Paris, 1615. Cic. Tusc. i, c. 25. De Nat. D. a, c. 34.—Liv. 24, c. 34.—Quintil, i, c. 10. — Vitruv. 9, c. 3. —Polyb, 7.--Plut. in Marcell. — Val. Max. 6, c, 7.

Archinus, a man who, when he was appointed to distribute new arms among the populace of Argos, raised a mercenary band, and made himself absolute. Polyaen. 3, c. 8.

-— A rhetorician of Athens.

Archipelagus, a part of the sea where islands in great number are interspersed such as that part of the Mediterranean which lies between Greece and Asia Minor, and is generally called Mare Aegeum.

Archipolis, or Archepolis, a soldier who conspired against Alexander with Dymnus. Curt. 6, c.7.

Archippe, a city of the Marsi, destroyed by an earthquake, and lost in the lake of Fucinus. Plin. 3, c. 19.

Archippus, a king of Italy, from whom, perhaps, the town of Archippe received its name. Virg AEn. 7, v. 752.

——A philosopher of Thebes, pupil to Pythagoras.

——An archon at Athens.

—— A comic poet of Athens, of whose eight comedies only one obtained the prize.

——A philosopher in the age of Trajan.

Architis, a name of Venus, worshipped on mount Libanus.

Archon, one of Alexander's generals, who received the provinces of Babylon, at the general division after the king's death. Diod. 18.


Archons


Archontes, the name of the chief magistrates of Athens.

They were nine in number, and none were chosen but such as were descended from ancestors who had been free citizens of the republic for three generations. They were also to be without deformity in all the parts and members of their body, and were obliged to produce testimonies of their dutiful behaviour to their parents, of the services they had rendered their country, and the competency of their fortune to support their dignity. They took a solemn oath that they would observe the laws, administer justice with impartiality, and never suffer themselves to be corrupted. If they ever received bribes, they were compelled by the laws to dedicate to the god of Delphi a statue of gold of equal weight with their body. They all had the power of punishing malefactors with death.

The chief among them was called Archon. The year took its denomination from him; he determined all causes between man and wife, and took care of legacies and wills; he provided for orphans, protected the injured, and punished drunkenness with uncommon severity. If he suffered himself to be intoxicated during the time of his office, the misdemeanour was punished with death.

The second of the archons was called Basileus. It was his office to keep good order, and to remove all causes of quarrel in the families of those who were dedicated to the service of the gods. The profane and the impious were brought before his tribunal; and he offered public sacrifices for the good of the state. He assisted at the celebration of the Eleusinian festivals, and other religious ceremonies. His wife was to be related to the whole people of Athens, and of a pure and unsullied life. He had a vote among the Areopagites, but was obliged to sit among them without his crown.

The Polemarch was another archon of inferior dignity. He had the care of all foreigners, and provided a sufficient maintenance from the public treasury for the families of those who had lost their lives in defence of their country.

These three chief archons generally chose each of them two persons of respectable character, and of an advanced age, whose counsels and advice might assist and support them in their public capacity.

The six other archons were indistinctly called Thesmothetae, and received complaints against persons accused of impiety, bribery, and ill behaviour. They settled all disputes between the citizens, redressed the wrongs of strangers and forbade any laws to be enforced but such as were conducive to the safety of the state.

These officers of state were chosen after the death of king Codrus: their power was originally for life, but afterwards it was limited to 10 years, and at last to one year. After some time, the qualifications which were required to be an archon were not strictly observed. Adrian, before he was elected emperor of Rome, was made archon at Athens, though a foreigner; and the same honours were conferred upon Plutarch.

The perpetual archons, after the death of Codrus, were Medon, whose office began B.C. 1070; Acastus, 1050; Archippus, 1014; Thersippus, 995; Phorbas, 954; Megacles, 923; Diognetus, 893; Pherecles, 865; Ariphron, 846; Thespius, 826; Agamestor, 799; Aeschylus, 778; Alcmaeon, 756; after whose death the archons were decennial, the first of whom was Charops, who began 753 ; Aesimedes, 744; Clidicus, 734; Hippomenes, 734; Leocrates. 714; Apsander, 704; Eryxias, 694; after whom the office became annual, and of these annual archons Creon was the first. Aristoph. in Nub. &> Avid.— Plut. Sympos. i, —Demost.—Pollux.— Lysias.

Archyius Thurius, a general of Dionysius the elder. Diod. 14.

Archytas, a musician of Mitylene, who wrote a treatise on agriculture. Diog.

——The son of Hestiaeus of Tarentum, was a follower of the Pythagorean philosophy, and an able astronomer and geometrician. He redeemed his master, Plato, from the hands of the tyrant Dionysius, and for his virtues he was seven times chosen, by his fellow-citizens, governor of Tarentum. He invented some mathematical instruments, and made a wooden pigeon which could fly. He perished in a shipwreck about 394 years before the Christian era. He is also the reputed inventor of the screw and the pulley. A fragment of his writings has been preserved by Porphyry. Horat i, od. 28.—Cic. 3, de Orat.—Diog. in Vit.

Arcitenens, an epithet applied to Apollo, from his bearing a bow. with which, as soon as born, he destroyed the serpent Python. Virg. Aen. 3, v. 75.

Arctinus, a Milesian poet, said to be a pupil to Homer. Dionys. Hal. 1

Arctophylax, a star near the great bear, called also Bootes. Cic. de Nat. D. 2, c. 42.

Arctos, a mountain near Propontis, inhabited by giants and monsters.

——Two celestial constellations near the north pole, commonly called Ursa Major and Minor; supposed to be Areas and his mother, who were made constellations. Virg. G. i. — Aratus. — Ovid. Fast. 3. v. 107.

Arcturus, a star near the tail of the great bear, whose rising and setting were generally supposed to portend great tempests. Horat. 3, od. i. The name is derived from its situation, arktos ursus, oura cauda. It rises now about the beginning of October, and Pliny tells us it rose in his age on the 12th, or, according to Columella, on the 5th of September.

Ardalus, a son of Vulcan, said to have been the first who invented the pipe. He gave it to the Muses, who on that account have been called Ardalides and Ardaliotides. Paus. 2. c. 31.

Ardalia, a country of Egypt. Strab.

Ardaxanus, a small river of Illyricum. Polyb.

Ardea, formerly Ardua, a town of Latium, built by Danae, or, according to some, by a son of Ulysses and Circe. It was the capital of the Rutuli. Some soldiers set it on fire, and the inhabitants publicly reported that their city had been changed into a bird, called by the Latins Ardea. It was rebuilt, and it became a rich and magnificent city, whose enmity to Rome rendered it famous. Tarquin the Proud was pressing it with a siege, when his son ravished Lucretia. A road called Ardeatina branched from the Appian road to Ardea. C. Nep. in Attic. 14.-Liv. x, c. 57- l- 3, c. 71. l. 4. c. 9, &c. — Virg. Aen. 7. v. 412. — Ovid. Met. 14, v. 573 — Strab. 5.



ATTICUS

with the illustrious men of his age, and he was such a lover of truth, that he not only abstained from falsehood even in a joke, but treated with the greatest contempt and indignation a lying tongue. It is said that he refused to take aliments when unable to get the better of a fever ; and died in the j-jth year, B.C. 32, after bearing the amiable character of peacemaker among his friends. Cornelius Nepos, one of his intimate friends, has written a minute account of his life. Cic. ad Attic., &c.

——Herodes. an Athenian in the age of the Antonines, descended from Miltiades, and celebrated for his munificence. His son of the same name was honoured with the consulship, and he generously erected an aqueduct at Troas, of which he had been made governor by the emperor Adrian, and raised, in other parts of the empire, several public buildings as useful as they were magnificent. Philostrat. in Vit. 2, p. 548.—A. Gell. Noct. Att.—.

—A consul in the age of Nero. &c. Tacit. Ann. 15.

Attila, a celebrated king of the Huns, a nation in the southern parts of Scythia, who invaded the Roman empire in the reign of Valentinian, with an army of 500,000 men, and laid waste the provinces. He took the town of Aquileia, and marched against Rome; but his retreat and peace were purchased with a large sum of money by the feeble emperor. Attila, who boasted in the appellation of the scourge 0/Godt died A.D. ,153, of an uncommon effusion of blood, the first night of his nuptials. He had expressed his wish .to extend bis conquests over the whole world ; and he often feasted his barbarity by dragging captive kings in his train. Jornand de Reb.Get.

Attilius, a Roman consul in the first Punic war. Vid. Regulus.

——Calatinus, a Roman consul who fought the Carthaginian fleet.

——Marcus, a poet who translated the Electra of Sophocles into Latin verse, and wrote comedies whose unintelligible language procured him the appellation of Ferreus.

——Regulus, a Roman censor who built a temple to the goddess of concord. Liv. 23, c. 23, &c.

—— The name of Attilius was common among the Romans, and many of the public magistrates are called Attilii; their life, however, is not famous for any illustrious event.

Attinas, an officer set over Bactriana by Alexander. Curt. 8.



Attius Pelignus, an officer of Caesar. Caes. Bell. Civ. i.

——Tullius, the general of the Volsci, to whom Coriolanus fled when banished from Rome. Liv.

—— Varius seized Auxinum in Pompey's name, whence he was expelled. After this he fled to Africa, which he alienated from J. Caesar. Cats. i. Bell. Civ.

——A poet. Vid. Accius.

—— The family of the Attii was descended from Atys, one of the companions of AEneas, according to the opinion which Virgil has adopted, JEn. 5. v. 568.

AtUTUS, a river of Gaul, now the Adour, which runs at the foot of the Pyrenean mountains into the bay of Biscay. Lucan. i, v. 420.

Atyadae, the descendants of Atys the Lydian.

Atys, an ancient king of Lydia, who sent away his son Tyrrhenus with a colony of Lydians, who settled in Italy. Herodot. i, c. 7.

——A son of Croesus king of Lydia. He was forbidden the use of all weapons by his father, who had dreamt that he had been killed. Some time after this, Atys prevailed on his father to permit him to go to hunt a wild boar which laid waste the country of Mysia, and he was killed in the attempt by Adrastus, whom Croesus had appointed guardian over his son, and thus the apprehensions of the monarch were realized. Herodot. i, c. 34, &c. Vid. Adrastus

———A Trojan who came to Italy with AEneas, and is supposed to be the progenitor of the family of the Atti at Rome. Virg. <&n. 5, v. 568.

——A youth to whom Ismene the daughter of CEdipus was promised in marriage. He was killed by Tydeus before his nuptials. Stab. Theb. 8, v. 598.

——A son of Limniace the daughter of the river Ganges, who assisted Cepheus in preventing the marriage of Andromeda, and was killed by Perseus with a burning log of wood. Ovid. Met. 5, v. 47.


Atys


——A celebrated shepherd of Phrygia, of whom the mother of the gods, generally called Cybele became enamoured. She entrusted him with the care of her temple, and made him promise that he always would live in celibacy.

He violated his vow by an amour with the nymph Sangaris, for which the goddess made him so insane and delirious, that he castrated himself with a sharp stone. This was afterwards intentionally done by his sacerdotal successors in the service of Cybele, to prevent their breaking their vows of perpetual chastity.

This account is the most general and most approved. Others say that the goddess became fond of Atys, because he had introduced her festivals in the greatest part of Asia Minor, and that she herself mutilated him.

Pausanias relates, in Achaic. c. 17, that Atys was the son of the daughter of the Sangar, who became pregnant by putting the bough of an almond tree in her bosom. Jupiter, as the passage mentions, once had an amorous dream, and some of the impurity of the god fell upon the earth, which soon after produced a monster of a human form, with the characteristics of the two sexes. This monster was called Agdistis, and was deprived by the gods of those parts which distinguished the male sex. From the mutilated parts which were thrown upon the ground, rose an almond tree, one of whose branches a nymph of the Sangar gathered, and placed in her bosom as mentioned above.

Atys, as soon as born, was exposed in a wood but preserved by a she-goat. The genius Agdistis saw him in the wood, and was captivated with his beauty. As Atys was going to celebrate his nuptials with the daughter of the kine of Pessinus, Agdistis, who was jealous of his rival, inspired by his enchantments the king and his future son-in-law with such an uncommon fury, that they both attacked and multiiated one another in the struggle.

Ovid says, Met. 10, fab. 2, &c., that Cybele changed Atys into a pine tree as he was going to lay violent hands upon himself, and ever after that tree was sacred to the mother of the gods.

After his death, Atys received divine honours, and temples were raised to his memory, particularly at Dymae.

Catull. de Aty.& Berec.— Ovid. Met. io,fad. 3. Fast. 4, v. 223, &c.—Lucian in Ded Syria.

——Sylvius, son of Albius Sylvius, was king of Alba. Liv i,

AvarlCUXn, a strong and fortified town of Gaul, now called Bourges, the capital of Berry. Cat. Bell. Gall. 7.

Avella, a town of Campania, abounding in, nuts, whence nuts have been called avelUna. Sil. 8, v. 45, 8ic.— Virg. Mn. v. 740.

Aventinus, a son of Hercules by Rhea, who assisted Turnus against ./Eneas, and distinguished himself by his valour. Virg. &n. 7, v. 657.

——A king of Alba, buried upon mount Aventine. Ovid. Fast. 4, v. 51.

-——One of the seven hills on which part of the city of Rome was built. It was 13,300 feet in circumference, and was given to the people to build houses upon, by king Ancus Martius. It was not reckoned within the precincts of the city till the reign of the.emperor Claudius, because the soothsayers looked upon it as a place of ill omen, as Remus had been buried there, whose blood had been criminally shed. The word is derived, according to some, ab avibus, because birds were fond of the place. Others suppose that it receives its name because Aventinus, one of the Alban kings, was buried upon it. Juno, the Moon, Diana, Bona Dea, Hercules, and the goddess of Victory and Liberty, had magnificent temples built upon it. Varro de L. L. \.—Virg. Mn. 8. v. 235.— Liv. i, c. 33.

Avernus, or Averna, a lake of Campania near Baias, whose waters were so unwholesome and putrid, that no birds were seen on its banks; hence its original name was aopi/o?, avibus carens. The ancients made it the entrance of hell, as also one of its rivers. Its circumference was five stadia, and its depth could not be ascertained. The waters of the Avernus were indispensably necessary in all enchantments and magical processes. It may be observed, that all lakes whose stagnated waters were putrid and offensive to the smell, were indiscriminately called Averna. Virg. ^;z. 4, v. 5,12, &c.l. 6, v. 201, &c.—Mela, 2, c. 4.—Strab. 5. —Diod. ^.—Aristot. de Adm.

Avesta, a book composed by Zoroaster.

Aufeia aqua, called afterwards Marcia, was the sweetest and most wholesome water in Rome, and it was first conveyed into the city by Ancus Martius.

Aufidena, now Alfidena, a city of the Peligni in Italy, whose inhabitants, called Aufidenates, were among the Sabines. Liv. 10, c. 12.

Aufidia lex was enacted by the tribune Aufidius Lurco, A.U.C. 692. It ordained, that if any candidate, in canvassing for an office, promised money to the tribunes, and failed in the performance, he should be excused ; but if he actually paid it, he should be compelled to pay every tribune 6000 sesterces.

Aufidius, an effeminate person of Chios. Juv. 9, v 25.

——Bassus, a famous historian in the age of Quintilian, who wrote an account of Germany, and of the civil wars.

——A Roman senator, famous for his blindness and abilities. Cic. Tusc. 5.

——Lurco, a man who enriched himself by fattening peacocks, and selling them for meat. Plin. 10.

—— Luscus, a man obscurely born, and made pretor of Fund:, in the age of Horace. Hor. i, sat. 5, v. 34.

Aufidus, a river of Apulia falling into the Adriatic sea, and now called Ofanto. It was on its banks that the Romans were defeated by Hannibal at Cannae. The spot is still shown by the inhabitants, and bears the name of the field of blood. Horat. 3, od. 30, 1. 4, od. 9.—Virg. AEn. n, v. 405.

Auga, Augre, and Augea, daughter of Aleus king of Tegea by Neaera, was ravished by Hercules, and brought forth a son, whom she exposed in the woods to conceal her amours from her father. The child was preserved, and called Telephus. Aleus was informed of his daughter's shame, and gave her to Nauplius to be put to death. Nauplius refused to perform the cruel office, and gave Auge to Teuthras king of Mysia, who, being without issue, adopted her as his daughter. Some time after the dominions of Teuthras were invaded by an enemy, and the king promised his crown and daughter to him who could deliver him from the impending calamity. Telephus, who had been directed by the oracle to go to the court of Teuthras, if he wished to find his parents, offered his services to the king, and they were accepted. As he was going to unite himself to Auge, in consequence of the victory he had obtained, Auge rushed from him with secret horror, and the gods sent a serpent to separate them. Auge implored the aid of Hercules, who made her son known to her, and she returned with him to Tegea. Pausanias says, that Auge was confined in a coffer with her infant son, and thrown into the sea, where, after being preserved and protected by Minerva, she was found by king Teuthras. Apollod 2 & 3.—Paus. 8, c. 4.—Hygin.fab. 99 & 100.

Augarus, an Arabian who, for his good offices obtained the favours of Pompey, whom he vilely deceived. Dio.

——A king of O.sroene, whom Caracalla imprisoned, after he had given him solemn promises of friendship and support, Dio. 78.

All £688, a town of Laconia. Pans. 3, c. 21.

——Another of Locris.

Auglas and Augreas, son of Eleus, or Elius, was one of the Argonauts, and afterwards ascended the throne of Elis. He had an immense number of oxen and goats, and the stables in which they were kept had never been cleaned, so that the task seemed an impossibility to any man. Hercules undertook it, on promise of receiving as a reward the tenth part of the herds of Augias, or something equivalent. The hero changed the course of the river Alpheus, or, according to others, .of the Peneus, which immediately carried away the dung And filth from the stables. Augias refused the promised recompense on pretence that Hercules had made use of artifice, and had not experienced any labour or trouble, and he further drove his own son Phyleus from his kingdom, because he supported the claims of the hero. The refusal was a declaration of war. Hercules conquered Elis, pu$ to death Augias, and gave the crown to Phyleus/ Pausanias says, 5, c. 2 & 3, that Hercules spared the life of Augias for the sake of his son, and that Phyleus went to settle in Dulichium; and that at the death of Augias his other son, Agasthenes succeeded to the throne. Augias received, after his death, the honours which were generally paid to a hero. Augias has been called the son of Sol, because Elius signifies the sun. The proverb of Augean stable is now applied to an impossibility. Hygin.fab. 14, 30,157.—Plin. 17, c. g.—Strab. 8.— Apollod. 2.

Augilae, a people of Africa, who supposed that there were no gods except the manes of the dead, of whom they sought oracles. Mela, i.

AuglnuSj a mountain of Liguria. Liv. 39, c. 2.


Augurs


' Augures, certain officers at Rome who foretold future events, whence their name, ab avium garritu. They were first created by Romulus, to the number of three. Servius Tullius added a fourth, and the tribunes of the people, A.U.C. 454, increased the number to nine; and Sylla added six more during his dictatorship.

They had a particular college, and the chief amongst them was called Magister collegii. Their office was honourable ; and if any one of them was convicted of any crime, he could not be deprived of his privileges; an indulgence granted to no other sacerdotal body at Rome.

The augur generally sat on a high tower to make his observations. His face was turned towards the east, and he had the north to his left, and the south at his right. With a crooked staff he divided the face of the heavens into four different parts, and afterwards sacrificed to the gods, covering his head with his vestment.

There were generally five things from which the augurs drew omens.
  • The first consisted in observing the phaenomena of the heavens, such as thunder, lightning, comets, &c.
  • The second kind of omen was drawn from the chirping or flying of birds.
  • The third was from the sacred chickens, whose eagerness or indifference in eating the bread which was thrown to them, was looked upon as lucky or unlucky.
  • The fourth was from quadrupeds, from their crossing or appearing in some unaccustomed place.
  • The fifth was from different casualties, which were called Dirae such as spilling salt upon a table, or wine upon one's clothes, hearing strange noises, stumbling or sneezing, meeting a wolf, hare, fox, or pregnant bitch.
From such superstitious notions did the Romans draw their prophecies. The sight of birds on the left hand was always deemed a lucky object, and the words sinister and laevus, though generally supposed to be terms of ill luck, were always used by the augurs in an auspicious sense. Cic. de Div.—Liv. i, &.c.—Dionys. Hal.— Ovid. Fast.

Augusta, a name given to 70 cities in the Roman provinces in honour of Augustus Caesar.

——London, as capital of the country of the Trinobantes, was called Augusta Trinobantia.

——Messalina, famous for her debaucheries, was called Augusta, as wife of the emperor Claudius. Juv. 6, v. 118.

Augustalia, a festival at Rome, m commemoration of the day on which Augustus returned to Rome, after he had established peace over the different parts of the empire.

Augustinus, a bishop of Hippo in Africa, distinguished himself by his writings, as well as by the austerity of his life. In his works, which are numerous, he displayed the powers of a great genius, and an extensive acquaintance with the philosophy of Plato. He died in the 76th year of nis age, A.D. 430. The best edition of his works is that of the Benedict, fol. Ant. 1700 to 1703, 12 vols,

Augustodunum, now Autun, a town of Gaul, tne capital of the ancient ./Edui.

Augustulus, the last Roman emperor of the west, A.D. 475, conquered by Odoacer king of the Heruli.


Augustus


Augustus Octavianus Caesar

Second emperor of Rome, was son of Octavius a senator, and Accia daughter of Julius, and sister to Julius Caesar. He was adopted by his uncle Caesar, and inherited the greatest part of his fortune.

Early rise
He lost his father at the age of four; and though only 18 when his uncle was murdered, he hastened to Rome, where he ingratiated himself with the senate and people, and received the honours of the consulship two years after, as the reward of his hypocrisy. Though his youth and his inexperience were ridiculed by his enemies, who branded him with the appellation of boy, yet he rose in consequence by his prudence and valour, and made war against his opponents, on pretence of avenging the death of his murdered uncle.

The Civil War
But when he perceived that by making him fight against Antony, the senate wished to debilitate both antagonists, he changed his views, and uniting himself with his enemy, soon formed the second triumvirate, in which his cruel proscriptions shed the innocent blood of 300 senators and 200 knights, and did not even spare the life of his friend Cicero. By the divisions which were made among the triumvirs, Augustus retained for himself the more important provinces of the west, and banished, as it were, his colleagues, Lepidus and Antony, to more distant territories. But as long as the murderers of Caesar were alive, the reigning tyrants had reason for apprehension, and therefore the forces of the triumvirate were directed against the partisans of Brutus and the senate. The battle was decided at Philippi, where it is said that the valour and conduct of Antony alone preserved the combined armies, and effected the defeat of the republican forces. The head of the unfortunate Brutus was carried to Rome, and in insolent revenge thrown at the feet of Caesar's statue.

The settlement of his soldiers
On his return to Italy, Augustus rewarded bis soldiers with the lands of those that had been proscribed ; but among the sufferers were many who had never injured the conqueror of Philippi, especially Virgil, whose modest application procured the restitution of his property.

Relations with Mark Antony
The friendship which subsisted between Augustus and Antony was broken as soon as the fears of a third rival vanished away, and the aspiring heir of Caesar was easily induced to take up arms by the little jealousies and resentment of Fulvia. Her death, however, retarded hostilities; the two rivals were reconciled; their united forces were successfully directed against the younger Pompey; and, to strengthen their friendship, Antony agreed to marry Octavia the sister of Augustus.

Battle of Actium
But as this step was political, and not dictated by affection, Octavia was slighted, and Antony resigned himself to the pleasures and company of the beautiful Cleopatra. Augustus was incensed, and immediately took up arms to avenge the wrongs of his sister, and perhaps more eagerly to remove a man whose power and existence kept him in continual alarms, and made him dependent. Both parties met at Actium, B.C. 31, to decide the fate of Rome. Antony was supported by all the power of the east, and Augustus by Italy. Cleopatra fled from the battle with 60 ships, and her flight ruined the interest of Antony, who followed her into Egypt. The conqueror soon after passed into Egypt, besieged Alexandria, and honoured, with a magnificent funeral, the unfortunate Roman and the celebrated queen, whom the fear of being led in the victor's triumph at Rome had driven to commit suicide.

Peace is established
After he had established peace all over the world, Augustus shut up the gates of the temple of Janus, the year our Saviour was born.

The succession
It is said he twice resolved to lay down the supreme power, immediately after the victory obtained over Antony, and afterwards on account of his ill-health; but his friend Mecaenas dissuaded him and observed that he would leave it to be the prey of the most powerful, and expose himself to ingratitude and to danger.

His death
He died at Nola, in the 76th year of his age, A.D. 14, after he had held the sovereign power during 44 years.

Augustus as Emperor
Augustus was an active emperor, and consulted the good of the Romans with the most anxious care. He visited all the provinces except Africa and Sardinia, and his consummate prudence and experience gave rise to many salutary laws , but it may be said, that he finished with a good grace what he began with cruelty. While making himself absolute, he took care to leave his countrymen the shadow of liberty; and if, under the character and office or perpetual tribune, of priest and imperator, he was invested with all the power of sovereignty, he guarded against offending the jealous Romans, by not assuming the regal title.

His attitude to rivals
His refusal to read the letters he found after Pompey's defeat arose more from fear than honour, and he dreaded the discovery of names which would have perhaps united to sacrifice his ambition.

Augustus and the poets
His good qualities, and many virtues he perhaps never possessed, have been transmitted to posterity by the pen of adulation or gratitude, in the poems of Virgil, Horace, and Ovid.

His title and friends
To distinguish himself from the obscurity of the Octavii, and, if possible, to suppress the remembrance of his uncle's violent fate, he aspired after a new title; and the submissive senate yielded to his ambition, by giving him the honourable appellation of Augustus. He has been accused of licentiousness and adultery by his biographer; but the goodness of his heart, and the fidelity of his friendship, which in some instances he possessed, made some amends for his natural foibles.

Physical vanity
He was ambitious of being thought handsome; and as he Was publicly reported to be the son of Apollo, according to his mother's declaration, he wished his flatterers to represent him with the figure and attributes of that god. Like Apollo, his eyes were clear, and he affected to have it thought that they possessed some divine irradiation; and was well pleased if, when he fixed his looks upon anybody, they held down their eyes as if overcome by the glaring brightness of the sun.

His learning
He distinguished himself by his learning; he was a perfect master of the Greek language, and wrote some tragedies, besides memoirs of his life, and other works, all now lost.

His family life
He was married three times; to Claudia, to Scribonia, and to Livia ; but he was unhappy in his matrimonial connections, and his only daughter Julia by Scribonia disgraced herself and her father by the debauchery and licentiousness of her manners. He recommended, at his death, his adopted son Tiberius as his successor. He left his fortune, partly to Tiberius and to Drusus, and made donations to the army and to the Roman people. Virgil wrote his heroic poem at the desire of Augustus, whom he represented under the amiable and perfect character of AEneas.

Sueton. in Vita.—Horat.— Virgil.—Paus.—Tacit.—Patercul.—Dio. Cass.— Ovid.

——The name of Augustus was afterwards given to the successors of Octavianus in the Roman empire as a personal, and the name of Caesar as a family, distinction. In a more distant period of the empire, the title of Augustus was given only to the emperor, while that of Caesar was bestowed on the second person in the state, who was considered as presumptive heir.

Avidianus, a rich and sordid man, whom Horat. styles happy, 2 Ser. 2, v. 55.

Avidius Oassius, a man saluted emperor, A.D. 175. He reigned only three months, and was assassinated by a centurion. He was called a second Catiline; from his excessive love of bloodshed. Diod.

Bums Festus Avienus, a poet in the age of Theodosius, who translated the phaenomena of Aratus, as also all Livy, into iambic verses. The best edition of what remains of him is that of Cannegetier, 8vo, 1731.

Avitus, a governor of Britain under Nero. Tacit. Ann. 14

——Alcinus, a Christian poet, who wrote a poem in six books on original sin, &c.

Avium, a city between Tyre and Sidon. Strdb. 16.

Aulerci, a people of Gaul, between the Seine and the Loire.

Aulestes, a king of the Etrurians when JEneas came into Italy. Virg. ^En. 12, v. 290.

Auletes, a general who assisted AEneas in Italy, with 100 ships. Virg. JEn. 10, v. 207.

——The surname of one of the Ptolemean kings, father to Cleopatra-

Aulis, a daughter of Ogyges. Paus. Boeotic.

——A town of Boeotia near Chalcis on the sea coast, where all the Greeks conspired against Troy. They were detained there by contrary winds, by the anger of Diana, whose favourite stag had been killed by Agamemnon. To appease the resentment of the goddess, Agamemnon was obliged to sacrifice his own daughter Iphigenia, whom, however, Diana spared by substituting a ram. Virg. JEn. 4, v. 426.—Ovid. Met. 12, v. 9, &c.—Homer. II. 2, Y. 303.

Aulon, a mountain of Calabria, opposite Tarentum, famous for its wine, which, according to Horat. 2, od. 6, v. 18, is superior to that of Falernium. Martial. 13, ep. 125.—Strab. 6.

——A place of Messenia. Paus.

Aulonius, a surname of AEsculapius.

Aulus, a praenomen common among the Romans.——Gellius. Vid. Gellius.

Auras, a European river, flowing into the Ister from mount Haemus. Herodot. 4, c. 49.

Aurelia lex, was enacted A.U.C. 653, by the pretor L. Aurelius Cotta, to invest the Senatorian and Equestrian orders, and the Tribuni AErarii, with judicial power.

——Another, A.U.C. 678. It abrogated a clause of the Lex Cornelia and permitted the tribunes to hold other offices after the expiration of the tribuneship.

Aurelia, a town of Hispania Baetica.

——The mother of J. Caesar. Suet, in Caes. 74.

——A fish-woman. Juv. 4, v. 98.

Aurelianus, emperor of Rome after Flavius Claudius, was austere, and even cruel in the execution of the laws, and punished his soldiers with unusual severity. He rendered himself famous for his military character; -and his expedition against Zenobia, the celebrated queen of Palmyra, gained him great honours. He beautified Rome, was charitable to the poor, and the author of many salutary laws. He was naturally brave, and in all the battles he fought, it is said, he killed no less than 800 men with his own hand. In his triumph, he exhibited to the Romans people of 15 different nations, all of which he had conquered. He was the first emperor who wore a diadem. After a glorious reign of six years, as he marched against the northern barbarians, he was assassinated near Byzantium, A.D. 275, January 2Qth, by his soldiers, whom Mnestheus had incited to rebellion against their emperor. This Mnestheus had been threatened with death, for some ill behaviour to the emperor, and therefore he meditated his death. The soldiers, however, soon repented of their ingratitude and cruelty to Aurelian, and threw Mnestheus to be devoured by wild beasts.

——A physician of the fourth century.

Aurelius, emperor of Rome. Vid. Antoninus Bassianus.

——A painter in the age of Augustus. Plin. 35.

——Victor, an historian in the age of Julian, two of whose compositions are extant—an account of illustrious men, and a biography of all the Caesars to Julian. The best edition of Aurelius are the 4to of Artuzenius, Amst. 1733, and the 8vo of Pitiscus, Utr. 1696.

——Antoninus, an emperor. Vid. Antoninus.

Aureolus, a general who assumed the purple in the age of Gallienus.

Aurinia, a prophetess held in great veneration by the Germans. Tacit. Germ. 8.

Aurora, a goddess, daughter of Hyperion and Thia or Thea, or, according to others, of Titan and Terra. Some say that Pallas, son of Crius and brother to Perseus, was her father ; hence her sur-

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